Thursday, October 7, 2010

Foreign Politics

Foreign policy is a set purpose, procedures, and objectives, formulated by the people in a formal or authoritative position, which is directed against a number of actors or the condition of the environment outside the territory of a State, which aims to influence a specific target in a way that desired by decision makers. To be more clear, here is the foreign policy-making scheme:There are 2 factors to consider in making foreign policy: international factors and domestic factors. Both these factors are used as the basis for consideration by policy makers of foreign policy, which performs the decision making process. The resulting decision may be an adjustment, programs, problems / goals, and international orientation.International factors. International factors to consider foreign policy makers are:1. Global FactorsIn connection with the international political system that had a global impact and also the State in the context of foreign policy making.2. Regional FactorsIn connection with regional institutions (which consists of the State) that have particular impact on the formation of foreign policy of a State. It also includes the norms agreed upon in a particular region should be considered when a State determines its foreign policy.3. Bilateral RelationsWith regard to bilateral relations between state actors are also the institutions of global or regional level. Actor2 the data affect the State of a State by using alliances, traded, as well as economic and military threat.4. Non-State actorsAktor2 such transnational criminal networks, terrorist networks, multinational corporations, and human rights organizations, play a role that can shape and influence the foreign policy of a State.
Domestic factors. Faktor2 the attention of foreign policy makers are:1. BureaucracyBirokeasi often identified with the working slowness in adapting to changes in foreign policy, but likely there is one group within the bureaucracy who have access to effective high-level officials seek changes in policy.2. Public opinionPublic opinion becomes important when government officials need the support of voters in order to implement a policy as well as for re-election.3. MediaThe media plays an important role in setting the agenda, and shaping public opinion, the media provides information from government to the public, the media can be an investigator, provide new information for the government as well as public, which can affect changes in policy changes in foreign policy.4. Interest groupsInterest groups are organized group, which is involved in a number aktiviitas government decision-making. This group formed termask citizens, organized by content-specific issues, lobbying business, professional, and public law firma2.5. Political partyPolitical parties that provide support to the government, or to forward / change foreign policy.
Domestic and international faktor2 is absorbed by policy makers. As humans, policy makers are influenced characteristics inherent in looking at domestic and international faktor2, karakteristik2 attached are: beliefs, motives, decision-making style, interpersonal style, interest in foreign relations, and training that had obtained in relation abroad.Confidence refers to the basic asumsi2 padaa political leaders that resulted in the interpretation of the environment and further impact on strategi2 taken later. Motive refers to the reason why a foreign decision-makers to do that, and this meliputio and affiliation motive, motive power, and the motive for approval. Decision-making style refers to a method taken as a policy maker as they will open information or level of risk that must be taken.Interpersonal style refers to how a political leader to deal with other policy makers, which include two types, namely, paranoia (exaggerated fraud) and Machiavellian (manipulative behavior). Training obtained in foreign relations refers to the amount of experience earned a policy maker in the context of manufacture and what strategies will be taken. Interest in foreign relations based on interests that want to take a kebijaka makers overseas, where if the interest is going to take someone's foreign policy, where if the interest is small it tends to delegate it to others, while if large, it will monitoring directly.Decision-making process. Decision-making process undertaken by the political leaders have a number of stages. The stages are:1. Initial desire to make policy2. Stimulation of the environmental / foreign actor3. Receive a variety of information4. Doing connection between the problem with the policy5. Build a series of alternative6. Build an authoritative consensus on the choice7. Implement new policy
Foreign policy in the reign of Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono in 2004 - 2009, in his vision and mission include making efforts to establish foreign policy. That is by improving international cooperation and improve the quality of Indonesia's diplomacy in the framework of the national interest. Achievements Indonesia since January 1, 2007 to non-permanent member of the UN Security Council, which the Republic of Indonesia was elected by 158 UN member states. Duties of the Republic of Indonesia in the UN Security Council are:1). Rwanda Sanctions Committee Chairman2). Chairman of the working committee for peacekeeping force3). Chairman of the Committee for the Sierra Leone sanctions4). Vice Chairman of the Committee for completion konfik Sudan5) Vice Chairman of the Committee on the Congo conflict resolution6). Vice Kertua Guinea Bissau conflict resolution committeeRecently, Indonesia dare take a stand as the only country not a permanent council member who abstained when all other countries providing support to impose sanctions on Iran. Characteristics of Free Political Active Republic of Indonesia In the various descriptions of the politics of a free State is active, the Free and Active is called the nature of the foreign policy of the Republic of Indonesia. Even behind the words free and active still be added with the other properties, such as anti-colonialism, anti-imperialism. In the document Strategic Plan for the Implementation of Foreign Policy of the Republic of Indonesia (1984-1989) who was appointed by the Minister of Foreign Affairs, dated May 19, 1983, explained that the nature of the Foreign Policy are: (1) Free On .... (2) Anti-colonialism ... (3) Serving the National Interest and ... (4) Democratic. Foreign policy in the minutes prepared by the Head of Research and Development (R & D) Problems of Foreign Affairs Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Suli Solomon .... So-called foreign policy nature only Free Active and anti-colonialism and anti-Imperialism. While M. Sabir is more likely to use the term characteristics and properties separately. According to M Sabir, traits or characteristics are usually referred to a more permanent nature, while giving an adjective meaning ordinary properties that can be changeable.Thus because of the free and active is a trait that is permanently attached to the free and active political torso, the authors classify it as a political characteristics of free-active while the Anti-Colonialism and Anti-Imperialism describes as nature.

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