Friday, October 1, 2010

Conflict Theory

Conflict theory is a theory that views that social change does not occur through a process of adjustment of the values that bring change, but due to the conflicts that produce compromises that are different from its original state.
This theory is based on the ownership of the means of production as the principal element of the separation of classes in society.
Conflict theory emerged as a reaction to the emergence of structural functional theory. Thinking of the most influential or the basis of the theory of conflict is the thinking of Karl Marx. In the 1950s and 1960s, the theory of conflict broke out. Conflict theory provides an alternative to structural functional theory.
At that time, Marx filed a fundamental conception of society and class struggle. Marx did not define the class at length but he showed that in society, in the 19th century in Europe where he lived, composed of the class of capital owners (bourgeoisie) and the poor working class as the proletariat. Both these classes are in a hierarchical social structure, the bourgeoisie against the proletariat exploitation in the production process. This exploitation will continue to run during pseudo-consciousness exists (false consiousness) within the proletariat, namely a sense of self surrender, accept the situation as it is maintained. Tensions relationship between the proletariat and the bourgeoisie encourage the formation of large social movements, namely the revolution. Tension occurs if the proletariat has been aware of the exploitation of the bourgeoisie against them. [3]
There are several basic assumptions of the theory of this conflict. The theory of conflict is the antithesis of structural functional theory, where theory is put forward functional structural order in society. The theory of conflict to see dissension and conflict in social systems. The theory of conflict to see that in the community would not forever be in order. The proof in any society must have experienced conflicts or tensions. Then the theory of conflict also saw the domination, coercion, and power in society. Conflict theory also talks about the different authorities. Different authorities resulted superordinasi and subordination. The difference between superordinasi and subordination can lead to conflict because of differences of interests.
Conflict theory also says that conflict is necessary for the creation of social change. When the functional structural say that social change in society that always happens at the point of equilibrium, conflict theory view of social change due to conflicts of interest. But at a certain point, people are able to reach a mutual agreement. In the conflict, there's always negotiations conducted thus create a consensus.

A. Levels of conflict
In order to respond to conflict secrara right, we need to understand the level (levels) of conflict. Individual level there is conflict and there is also conflict institutional level. Both will be described in greater detail following.

1. Conflict Individual Level

In this category, there are two categories of conflict, namely: (1) conflict within the individual in question, and (2) conflicts between individuals. Conflicts in a person occurs when he has two or more interests that are conflicting. When those interests are equally attractive or equally unattractive, but he must make a choice, then there was a conflict within the individual concerned. Conflict between individuals, occurs when two individuals have the same interests against one thing, and they both will not budge. It could also, conflicts occur when they have different views or opinions, and each considers the most correct pendapatnnyalah. Contradictions of this kind lead to conflict between individuals.

2. Conflict Level Institutions
Two or more institutions, could be involved in a conflict. At the institutional level, there are two levels of conflict: (1) conflict within the institution and (2) conflicts between agencies.
Conflict occurs in the atmosphere is almost the same institution with a conflict between individuals as mentioned above, but is more complex. The difference is the number of individuals involved in the conflict. The members in an institution because they have conflicting interests similar to the one and the same thing will not budge. They have different views or opinions, and each considers the most correct pendapatnyalah.
In his position as a member of a group, people will tend to sort themselves meraka into two categories: 'we' (ingroup) and 'them' (outgroup). Ingroup are those who become members of the institution, and the outgroup are those that are outside the ingroup. Inter-institutional conflict arises when there is disagreement between the ingroup and outgroup.
If we observe the dynamics of an institution, we could find the existence of three types of conflict.

B. The theories about the causes of conflict

Public Relations Theory
Considers that the conflict caused by the polarization that continues to occur, distrust and hostility between different groups within a society. The main objective of this theory are:
• Improving communication and understanding between the groups in conflict.
• Ensuring the community for more tolerance and mutual acceptance of diversity that can exist in it.

Negotiation Theory Principles
Considers that the conflict caused by the positions that are not aligned and differences of opinion about the conflict by the parties in conflict. The main objective of this theory are:
• Assisting the parties in conflict to separate personal feelings with various problems and issues, and enabling them to conduct negotiations based on their interests rather than specific positions that have been fixed.
• Smooth the process of reaching an agreement beneficial to both parties or all parties.

Human Needs Theory

Assume that the conflict is rooted in basic human needs caused by - physical, mental, and social - are not fulfilled or blocked. Security, identity, recognition, participation, and autonomy is often a core subject. The main objective of this theory are:
• Assisting the parties in conflict to identify and work with their needs unmet, and generate options to meet those needs.
• In order for the parties in conflict to reach an agreement to meet the basic needs of all parties.

Identity Theory
Assume that the conflict caused by the threatened identity, often rooted in the loss of something or suffering in the past that are not resolved. The main objective of this theory are:
• Through workshops and dialogues between the parties in conflict they are expected to identify the threats and fear they felt each and to build empathy and reconciliation between them.
• Reaching agreement that recognizes the need for fundamental identity of all parties.

Theory of Intercultural Misunderstanding

Assume that the conflict caused by lack of match in the ways of communication between different cultures. The main objective of this theory are:
• Increase knowledge of the parties in conflict about the culture of others.
• Reduce the negative stereotypes they have of the other party.
• Improve the effectiveness of intercultural communication.

Theory of Conflict Transformation
Assume that the conflict caused by the problems of inequality and injustice that arise as social problems, cultural and economic. The main objective of this theory are:
• Changing the structures and frameworks that lead to inequality and injustice, including economic disparities.
• Improve relationships and long-term attitude among the parties in conflict.
• Develop a variety of processes and systems to promote empowerment, justice, peace, forgiveness, reconciliation and recognition.

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