Friday, October 1, 2010

COLD WAR



Cold War is the designation for a period in which the conflict, tension, and competition between the United States (and its Western allies disebutBlok) and the Soviet Union (and its allies called the Eastern Bloc) which occurred between the years 1947-1991. Competition both occur in different areas: military coalitions, ideology, psychology, and look a password, military, industrial, and technological development, defense, nuclear and arms race, and more. Feared that this war will end with a nuclear war, which ultimately did not happen. The term "Cold War" itself was introduced in 1947 by Bernard Baruch and Walter Lippman of the United States to describe the relations between these two superpowers.
After the U.S. and Soviet Union allied and managed to destroy Nazi Germany, the two sides differed on how the proper way to build post-war Europe. Over the next few decades, competition between them to spread into Europe and reaching out to the world when the U.S. build a "defense" against communism by forming a number of alliances with various countries, especially with countries in Western Europe, the Middle East, and Southeast Asia.
Although the two superpowers never fought directly, but conflict between them indirectly have caused many local wars such as the Korean War, the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia and Hungariadan Vietnam War. Results of the Cold War including (from several points of view) the dictatorship in Greece and South America. Cuban Missile Crisis is also the result of the Cold War and East Crisis Tengahjuga has become more complex due to the Cold War. Another impact is the division of Germany into two parts, namely West Germany and East Germany are separated by the Berlin Wall. But there are also times where the tension and rivalry between them is reduced. Cold War began to end in the 1980's when Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev launched the reform programs, perestroika and glasnost. Constantly, the Soviet Union lost the power and authority to Eastern Europe and finally disbanded in 1991.

Nuclear As Penangkalan Strategy
In carrying out the strategy of nuclear penangkalan there are some basic assumptions that must be owned:

1. Defensive character, a new strategic interactions take place during or after the first attack of the opponent.
2. Retaliatory attacks carried out by relying on weapons that can be saved from the first attack your opponent.
3. Rationality and the mirror-image, the other side think the same logic as he does.
In carrying out its strategy penangkalan there are two mechanisms that can be used. The first mechanism is the punishment which focuses on the use of offensive weapons and rely on counterattacks against non-military targets (countervalue). The effectiveness of this mechanism lies in the ability to save the number of offensive weapons possessed from the first attack (first strike) opponent. The second mechanism is the denial that involves the use of direct military force to prevent an attack on the opponent's state-controlled region. This mechanism focuses on the use of defensive weapons and rely on the attack against military objects (counterforce).

Nuclear Strategy in the Cold War Period
At first monopoly of nuclear weapons in the hands of the United States, which since 1945 until 1949. The Soviet Union's new master nuclear technology in 1949, but not have the interest to develop nuclear weapons. This is caused by the domination of thought in the formulation of Joseph Stalin in the Soviet Union's military strategy. Stalin is the orthodox interpreters of Marx and Engels. Both leaders said that the victory in every battle is only determined by the forces of moral discipline. By Stalin, the premise is then formulated and standardized as a key element to winning the war. Also, Stalin was also a strong believer in conventional forces and did not believe the attack-pendadakan (surprise attack).

United States Nuclear Strategy
To deal with the Soviet Union who have been able to master nuclear technology, the United States in the mid-1950s to develop strategimassive retaliation. This strategy states that the strategic and tactical nuclear forces the United States is used not only to deter nuclear attacks against the United States and its allies but also to ward off any attack communist countries against other countries around the world. To support this strategy the United States developed hydrogen bombs, tactical nuclear weapons and long-range bombers (B-52). In 1953 tactical nuclear weapons stationed in Europe began in 1955 and a strategic bomber B-52 began operations.
However, this strategy contains kelemamahan namely, first, the United States is doubtful to use nuclear weapons. This view is based on the fact that in previous conventional war (Korean War) United States does not use nuclear weapons. Second, the United States is not able to guarantee himself to avoid a U.S. nuclear attack. Though effective penagkalan effect if the United States are not in a position vulnerable to Soviet nuclear attack. Third, the United States nuclear attack against the Soviet Union to rely on an air base in the UK & Western Europe while the Western conventional forces in Europe is smaller than the conventional forces of the Soviet Union with the United States thus has not had sufficient means to make the Soviet Union to its knees. To overcome these weaknesses the United States and then develop the idea of Limited Nuclear War to complement the strategy of massive retaliation. Thought it recognizes that not all aggression against the West can be resisted by doing a direct attack to the Soviet Union.
Once again this strategy dpandang flawed because it can encourage the Soviet Union attacked the United States because it already knows the weakness strategy of massive retaliation, causing local conflict and the possibility of limited nuclear war becomes increasingly large. Thus what happens is a paradox: avoiding nuclear war even trigger a global nuclear war.
In the 1960's the United States developed a strategy of flexible response. Core strategy lies in the flexibility of the United States in the face of security threats by increasing its capacity to deal with all forms of war, large-scale or limited, nuclear or conventional. This strategy emphasizes the prinsipcounterforce with an excuse to reduce the number of civilian casualties in case of nuclear war. By implementing the principle of counterforce then open the opportunity for the United States to conduct preemptive attacks.
This strategy also has a weakness that is effective counterforce strategic weapons if the United States used these weapons before the opponent is used. Counterforce means to stimulate the United States to conduct a first strike becomes greater. This led to the threat of nuclear war became greater as the Soviet Union will see the implications and make efforts to not be attacked first. This is evidenced by the policy of the Soviet Union to develop ICBMs (Inter-continental Ballistic Missile) and SLBM (Sea Launch Ballistic Missile) in the mid-1960s. This condition can threaten the occurrence of an uncontrolled arms race.
The weakness is pushing the United States to develop new nuclear strategy. The strategy called MAD (Mutual Assured Destruction). This strategy emphasizes on thinking "anyone who started the first attack will not win the war or be the loser because the power at (second strike) both parties will execute great vengeance." This thought led to the United States of trying to strategize for a number of strategic weapons is not vulnerable from attack-impromptu opponent. The answer given the United States for those needs is to stop the development of the number of its ICBMs by 1054, but increase the number of SLBM it as a system that is not prone to sudden attack. In contrast to the flexible response that uses the principle of counterforce, MAD uses the principle countervalue.
To keep penangkalan effect of this strategy, namely the destruction of a convincing (assured destruction), effective the United States trying to strengthen its security ties with the Soviet Union by arms control. This is needed because if the number of weapons has exceeded the amount required then the strategic value of this strategy will be lost. One positive effect of MAD is to achieve agreement on the ABM (Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty) and the SALT I (Strategic Arms Limited Talks I) in 1972.
However, the development of weapons the Soviet Union in the 1970's re-birth of increasing criticism of U.S. nuclear strategy. MAD strategy is no longer felt able to confront the Soviet Union's weapons capabilities has increased. The United States also considered no longer enough just to rely on attacks on the cities and industrial centers of the Soviet Union. This thought is trying to push the United States to also run on the principle of counterforce nuclear strategy. In addition, the United States is deemed necessary to improve the ability of its weaponry and determine a set of goals that will be destroyed in the event of war. These criticisms and then gave birth to the so-called Presidential Directive 59 (PD 59) in 1980. PD 59 provides guidelines on what should be the United States in the face of conflict with the Soviet Union. PD 59 includes tens of thousands of list of goals that will destroy the United States in the event of war. However, although containing tens of thousands of target list, target-taget can be categorized into four major groups namely:
1) nuclear power the Soviet Union;
2) The power of conventional;
3) Leadership and political-military leadership and communication facilities, and;
4) The goals of economic and industry of the Soviet Union.
Post-Cold War Nuclear Strategy
In 1994 conducted a review of the nature, role and number of nuclear weapons the United States. The results of this review adalahNuclear Posture Review (NPR) 1994. However, the contents of the NPR in 1994 this is still a conservative. United States still take the attitude of wait and seemenghadapi interasional situation changes that occur.
Post-Cold War pushed the United States to develop nuclear arms control arrangements. United States effort is centered on the START treaty (Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty) II, which was agreed in 1993. START II agreement contains the United States and Russia to reduce the number of nuclear weapons: from 12,000 nuclear warheads in 1990 to between 3000 and 3500 in 2003. However, in 1997 the reduction was extended until 2007 due to political and technical issues. In addition, the United States is also working with countries other ex-Soviet Union to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons due to "nuclear leakage".

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