Thursday, October 7, 2010

Foreign Politics

Foreign policy is a set purpose, procedures, and objectives, formulated by the people in a formal or authoritative position, which is directed against a number of actors or the condition of the environment outside the territory of a State, which aims to influence a specific target in a way that desired by decision makers. To be more clear, here is the foreign policy-making scheme:There are 2 factors to consider in making foreign policy: international factors and domestic factors. Both these factors are used as the basis for consideration by policy makers of foreign policy, which performs the decision making process. The resulting decision may be an adjustment, programs, problems / goals, and international orientation.International factors. International factors to consider foreign policy makers are:1. Global FactorsIn connection with the international political system that had a global impact and also the State in the context of foreign policy making.2. Regional FactorsIn connection with regional institutions (which consists of the State) that have particular impact on the formation of foreign policy of a State. It also includes the norms agreed upon in a particular region should be considered when a State determines its foreign policy.3. Bilateral RelationsWith regard to bilateral relations between state actors are also the institutions of global or regional level. Actor2 the data affect the State of a State by using alliances, traded, as well as economic and military threat.4. Non-State actorsAktor2 such transnational criminal networks, terrorist networks, multinational corporations, and human rights organizations, play a role that can shape and influence the foreign policy of a State.
Domestic factors. Faktor2 the attention of foreign policy makers are:1. BureaucracyBirokeasi often identified with the working slowness in adapting to changes in foreign policy, but likely there is one group within the bureaucracy who have access to effective high-level officials seek changes in policy.2. Public opinionPublic opinion becomes important when government officials need the support of voters in order to implement a policy as well as for re-election.3. MediaThe media plays an important role in setting the agenda, and shaping public opinion, the media provides information from government to the public, the media can be an investigator, provide new information for the government as well as public, which can affect changes in policy changes in foreign policy.4. Interest groupsInterest groups are organized group, which is involved in a number aktiviitas government decision-making. This group formed termask citizens, organized by content-specific issues, lobbying business, professional, and public law firma2.5. Political partyPolitical parties that provide support to the government, or to forward / change foreign policy.
Domestic and international faktor2 is absorbed by policy makers. As humans, policy makers are influenced characteristics inherent in looking at domestic and international faktor2, karakteristik2 attached are: beliefs, motives, decision-making style, interpersonal style, interest in foreign relations, and training that had obtained in relation abroad.Confidence refers to the basic asumsi2 padaa political leaders that resulted in the interpretation of the environment and further impact on strategi2 taken later. Motive refers to the reason why a foreign decision-makers to do that, and this meliputio and affiliation motive, motive power, and the motive for approval. Decision-making style refers to a method taken as a policy maker as they will open information or level of risk that must be taken.Interpersonal style refers to how a political leader to deal with other policy makers, which include two types, namely, paranoia (exaggerated fraud) and Machiavellian (manipulative behavior). Training obtained in foreign relations refers to the amount of experience earned a policy maker in the context of manufacture and what strategies will be taken. Interest in foreign relations based on interests that want to take a kebijaka makers overseas, where if the interest is going to take someone's foreign policy, where if the interest is small it tends to delegate it to others, while if large, it will monitoring directly.Decision-making process. Decision-making process undertaken by the political leaders have a number of stages. The stages are:1. Initial desire to make policy2. Stimulation of the environmental / foreign actor3. Receive a variety of information4. Doing connection between the problem with the policy5. Build a series of alternative6. Build an authoritative consensus on the choice7. Implement new policy
Foreign policy in the reign of Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono in 2004 - 2009, in his vision and mission include making efforts to establish foreign policy. That is by improving international cooperation and improve the quality of Indonesia's diplomacy in the framework of the national interest. Achievements Indonesia since January 1, 2007 to non-permanent member of the UN Security Council, which the Republic of Indonesia was elected by 158 UN member states. Duties of the Republic of Indonesia in the UN Security Council are:1). Rwanda Sanctions Committee Chairman2). Chairman of the working committee for peacekeeping force3). Chairman of the Committee for the Sierra Leone sanctions4). Vice Chairman of the Committee for completion konfik Sudan5) Vice Chairman of the Committee on the Congo conflict resolution6). Vice Kertua Guinea Bissau conflict resolution committeeRecently, Indonesia dare take a stand as the only country not a permanent council member who abstained when all other countries providing support to impose sanctions on Iran. Characteristics of Free Political Active Republic of Indonesia In the various descriptions of the politics of a free State is active, the Free and Active is called the nature of the foreign policy of the Republic of Indonesia. Even behind the words free and active still be added with the other properties, such as anti-colonialism, anti-imperialism. In the document Strategic Plan for the Implementation of Foreign Policy of the Republic of Indonesia (1984-1989) who was appointed by the Minister of Foreign Affairs, dated May 19, 1983, explained that the nature of the Foreign Policy are: (1) Free On .... (2) Anti-colonialism ... (3) Serving the National Interest and ... (4) Democratic. Foreign policy in the minutes prepared by the Head of Research and Development (R & D) Problems of Foreign Affairs Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Suli Solomon .... So-called foreign policy nature only Free Active and anti-colonialism and anti-Imperialism. While M. Sabir is more likely to use the term characteristics and properties separately. According to M Sabir, traits or characteristics are usually referred to a more permanent nature, while giving an adjective meaning ordinary properties that can be changeable.Thus because of the free and active is a trait that is permanently attached to the free and active political torso, the authors classify it as a political characteristics of free-active while the Anti-Colonialism and Anti-Imperialism describes as nature.

Friday, October 1, 2010

GLOBALIZATION

The term globalization, first used by Theodore Levitt in 1985 which refers to the political-economic, political, particularly free trade and financial transactions. Historically, the roots of globalization is the emergence of the electronic revolution and the disintegration of communist countries. Electronic revolution double acceleration of communication, transportation, production, and information. Disintegration of the communist countries that ended the Cold War allowed Western capitalism to be the only force that assume global hegemony. That is why in the field of trade and economic ideology, globalization is often referred to as the Decolonization (Oommen), recolonisation (Oliver, Balasuriya, Chandran), Neo-Capitalism (Menon), Neo-Liberalism (Ramakrishnan). Instead Sada called globalization as the existence of the Euro-American capitalism in the Third World.
In very simple to say that globalization is seen when all the people in the world are wearing Levis and Reeboks, eat McDonalds, drink Coca-Cola. More essential, globalization appears in the form of Global Capitalism berimplementasi through the IMF, World Bank, and WTO; world institutions that recently got a very sharp criticism of Dennis Kucinich, candidate for President of the United States from the Democratic Party, as these institutions It reflects the global injustice.
The programs of these institutions has become a powerful tool of Western capitalism that shake, shed and destroyed not only the economy but the lives of poor countries in an unbalanced form of the game between lender giant with landless laborers. Helpless little people in poor countries, became increasingly worse and miserable.
So although there are positive effects of globalization such as the presence of communication and information networks that facilitate the life of humanity, from the point of interests of the poor, globalization is more negative impact. We see the negative aspects of inequality of trade between nations, the accumulation of wealth and power in the hands of the capitalist developed countries resulting in unimaginable squalor in poor countries, including Indonesia. According to Kucinich, poorer countries have been extorted by payment of the debt burden to a global institution. Exemplified, every year 2.5 billion U.S. dollars in funds flow from sub-Saharan African countries to international lenders, while 40 million citizens of their malnutrition.

Conflict Theory


Conflict theory is a theory that views that social change does not occur through a process of adjustment of the values that bring change, but due to the conflicts that produce compromises that are different from its original state.
This theory is based on the ownership of the means of production as the principal element of the separation of classes in society.
Conflict theory emerged as a reaction to the emergence of structural functional theory. Thinking of the most influential or the basis of the theory of conflict is the thinking of Karl Marx. In the 1950s and 1960s, the theory of conflict broke out. Conflict theory provides an alternative to structural functional theory.
At that time, Marx filed a fundamental conception of society and class struggle. Marx did not define the class at length but he showed that in society, in the 19th century in Europe where he lived, composed of the class of capital owners (bourgeoisie) and the poor working class as the proletariat. Both these classes are in a hierarchical social structure, the bourgeoisie against the proletariat exploitation in the production process. This exploitation will continue to run during pseudo-consciousness exists (false consiousness) within the proletariat, namely a sense of self surrender, accept the situation as it is maintained. Tensions relationship between the proletariat and the bourgeoisie encourage the formation of large social movements, namely the revolution. Tension occurs if the proletariat has been aware of the exploitation of the bourgeoisie against them. [3]
There are several basic assumptions of the theory of this conflict. The theory of conflict is the antithesis of structural functional theory, where theory is put forward functional structural order in society. The theory of conflict to see dissension and conflict in social systems. The theory of conflict to see that in the community would not forever be in order. The proof in any society must have experienced conflicts or tensions. Then the theory of conflict also saw the domination, coercion, and power in society. Conflict theory also talks about the different authorities. Different authorities resulted superordinasi and subordination. The difference between superordinasi and subordination can lead to conflict because of differences of interests.
Conflict theory also says that conflict is necessary for the creation of social change. When the functional structural say that social change in society that always happens at the point of equilibrium, conflict theory view of social change due to conflicts of interest. But at a certain point, people are able to reach a mutual agreement. In the conflict, there's always negotiations conducted thus create a consensus.

A. Levels of conflict
In order to respond to conflict secrara right, we need to understand the level (levels) of conflict. Individual level there is conflict and there is also conflict institutional level. Both will be described in greater detail following.

1. Conflict Individual Level

In this category, there are two categories of conflict, namely: (1) conflict within the individual in question, and (2) conflicts between individuals. Conflicts in a person occurs when he has two or more interests that are conflicting. When those interests are equally attractive or equally unattractive, but he must make a choice, then there was a conflict within the individual concerned. Conflict between individuals, occurs when two individuals have the same interests against one thing, and they both will not budge. It could also, conflicts occur when they have different views or opinions, and each considers the most correct pendapatnnyalah. Contradictions of this kind lead to conflict between individuals.

2. Conflict Level Institutions
Two or more institutions, could be involved in a conflict. At the institutional level, there are two levels of conflict: (1) conflict within the institution and (2) conflicts between agencies.
Conflict occurs in the atmosphere is almost the same institution with a conflict between individuals as mentioned above, but is more complex. The difference is the number of individuals involved in the conflict. The members in an institution because they have conflicting interests similar to the one and the same thing will not budge. They have different views or opinions, and each considers the most correct pendapatnyalah.
In his position as a member of a group, people will tend to sort themselves meraka into two categories: 'we' (ingroup) and 'them' (outgroup). Ingroup are those who become members of the institution, and the outgroup are those that are outside the ingroup. Inter-institutional conflict arises when there is disagreement between the ingroup and outgroup.
If we observe the dynamics of an institution, we could find the existence of three types of conflict.

B. The theories about the causes of conflict

Public Relations Theory
Considers that the conflict caused by the polarization that continues to occur, distrust and hostility between different groups within a society. The main objective of this theory are:
• Improving communication and understanding between the groups in conflict.
• Ensuring the community for more tolerance and mutual acceptance of diversity that can exist in it.

Negotiation Theory Principles
Considers that the conflict caused by the positions that are not aligned and differences of opinion about the conflict by the parties in conflict. The main objective of this theory are:
• Assisting the parties in conflict to separate personal feelings with various problems and issues, and enabling them to conduct negotiations based on their interests rather than specific positions that have been fixed.
• Smooth the process of reaching an agreement beneficial to both parties or all parties.

Human Needs Theory

Assume that the conflict is rooted in basic human needs caused by - physical, mental, and social - are not fulfilled or blocked. Security, identity, recognition, participation, and autonomy is often a core subject. The main objective of this theory are:
• Assisting the parties in conflict to identify and work with their needs unmet, and generate options to meet those needs.
• In order for the parties in conflict to reach an agreement to meet the basic needs of all parties.

Identity Theory
Assume that the conflict caused by the threatened identity, often rooted in the loss of something or suffering in the past that are not resolved. The main objective of this theory are:
• Through workshops and dialogues between the parties in conflict they are expected to identify the threats and fear they felt each and to build empathy and reconciliation between them.
• Reaching agreement that recognizes the need for fundamental identity of all parties.


Theory of Intercultural Misunderstanding

Assume that the conflict caused by lack of match in the ways of communication between different cultures. The main objective of this theory are:
• Increase knowledge of the parties in conflict about the culture of others.
• Reduce the negative stereotypes they have of the other party.
• Improve the effectiveness of intercultural communication.

Theory of Conflict Transformation
Assume that the conflict caused by the problems of inequality and injustice that arise as social problems, cultural and economic. The main objective of this theory are:
• Changing the structures and frameworks that lead to inequality and injustice, including economic disparities.
• Improve relationships and long-term attitude among the parties in conflict.
• Develop a variety of processes and systems to promote empowerment, justice, peace, forgiveness, reconciliation and recognition.

History of the World Bank:

World Bank are lending institutions that fund critical infrastructure needs, globally. Headquartered in Washington DC, this fiscal institutions is skewed heavily by the government in the world for timely release of funds to support the development of major utilities and services. The focus of the current green 'World Bank has taken the initiative in 1944 to a new level ...
 
History of the World Bank:
The World Bank is the result of the Bretton Woods Conference, held in 1944. It was launched with the International Monetary Fund, in the presence of a number of delegations of the world are important, and important policy makers from the United States and Britania.Awalnya, until in 1968 the World Bank mainly lends money, the following fiscal conservatism. The loan application very carefully screened.
The action plan is followed at first was to establish the World Bank as an institution designed to provide investment and loans. Under the leadership of John McCloy, France was the first country to receive World Bank assistance, the refusal of Chile and Poland. $ 250,000,000 dollar loan made in strict terms of payment.
In time, the emphasis shifted to conformity and a number of non-European countries continued assistance, the assumptions and calculations that the loan has the capacity to repay the loan in good time. The loan transferred to less developed countries and developing countries to fund the development of transportation systems and power plants.
Then, the focus shifted to poverty alleviation and allow the state to help people benefit from access to basic needs. Total loans and total loans increased funds available to also to meet the needs of infrastructure and social services. Robert McNamara, World Bank President in 1968 is credited with the implementation of the new technocratic management of funds.
McNamara makes the World Bank funds available for building utilities and schools, hospitals, agricultural reform and to improve levels of literacy. Investigations prior to sanction loans not only allow for continued loan quickly, but also increase the volume of credit. The bond market is used to raise capital. Through the 1980s, the World Bank's focus is on structural adjustment and economic downsizing some developing countries.
Currently, the World Bank integrated its lending practices to meet environmental requirements and infrastructure, all over the world. The focus of the new green''has made a capital for a number of developing and least developed countries to increase exports, achieve economic peace and at the same time ensure improved citizens utilities and services.
Objectives:
The World Bank is a financial institution that is designed to meet the needs of the international community. Provide technical assistance in the fiscal world fluctuate, to enable developing countries to address critical infrastructure needs. World Bank funds development program targets to reduce poverty.
Role:
The World Bank consists of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development or IBRD and the International Development Association or IDA. It is also responsible for the work the International Finance Corporation, the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency and International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes. The World Bank's main role is unbiased distribution of funds for the economic upliftment of the international community. It bears the responsibility to ensure assistance to resolve disputes and facilitate the reconstruction of the fiscal investment and infrastructure, all over the world.
World Bank Objectives:
World Bank head office in Washington DC The purpose of this international organization include:• Achieving the Millennium Development Goals.• Increased lending to middle-income countries.• Develop and advanced with easy loan interest rates.• Generate a low or no interest loans to countries lagging.• Improving the periodic give-investment by member countries.


World Bank definition:
World Bank definition set: A bank with a mission to help developing countries and left in the world to:• Reduce poverty.• Develop an investment-environment.• Increase job opportunities.• Work towards sustained economic growth.• Promote socio-economic growth through investment.• Strengthen government and education.• Empower the development of legal and judicial system, business opportunities and protection of individual rights.• The benefits of micro credit as well as businesses large companies.• Combating corruption.• Promote research and training opportunities.


Operational issues:The World Bank manages the funds or capital investments made by the various operations by investing in world markets after investment keuangan.Subyek made to withstand the fluctuations and lending activities. The majority of World Bank funds obtained from forty donor countries. This nation is filled loaned funds every three years. The replenishments depend on timely loan repayment. In the event of disruption in this arena, automatic future Bank's lending capacity is affected.
IMF and World Bank:The World Bank and IMF or the International Monetary Fund is a good support system of inter-governmental organization dedicated to improving the world financial order. Both were directed by the governments of member countries. Second, the IMF and World Bank have their headquarters in Washington, DC The difference lies in the fact that the World Bank is a development institution, while the IMF's function as a cooperative institution. While the former looks to the loan terms by the countries under-developed and developing, the latter handles payments, payments and receipts.
Facts About the World Bank:World Bank offers two types of loans: investment and development policies. While the investment credit which will be forwarded to support economic and social development, policy development loans are offered as a quick finance to support institutional reforms to reduce third world debt.
Provide analytical services for the improvement of economic and social infrastructure. It also encourages innovation and collaboration among local stakeholders to produce:• Debt in the case of countries that are very poor.• Development of sanitation and water supply.• Support immunization programs during the epidemic.• Create 'green' initiatives.Current World Bank President Robert B. Zoellick. He is assisted by three Senior Vice President, 24 Vice-President and Executive Vice President 2.
What the World Bank?:World Bank provides financial and technical assistance to developing country markets. This usually happens when their economies are in danger of default through overspending, borrowing a broad, often causing hyperinflation and a devaluation of its currency. The World Bank is not really a bank in the sense sehat.Sebaliknya, is comprised of two development institutions owned by 186 member countries the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) and International Development Association (IDA).What is purpose of the World Bank?:World Bank provides low-interest loans, interest-free loans and grants to developing countries. In return, the state must adhere to a strict budget reform. Should agree to reduce expenditure and support its currency. World Bank loan is usually to invest in education, health, and infrastruktur.Pinjaman also be used to modernize a country's financial sector, agriculture and natural resource management.World Bank History:The World Bank was created in 1944 to provide loans to mainly European countries that have been destroyed in the war to help them rebuild. It evolved from the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD). World Bank headquarters in Washington, DC, and especially staff with the engineer.Since then, it has been broadened to closely related group of five development institutions whose goal is to reduce poverty around the world. It operates closely with its affiliate, the International Development Association, and other members of the World Bank Group, International Finance Corporation (IFC), Multilateral Guarantee Agency (MIGA), and International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID).

Constructivist Approach To Analysis Of Foreign Affairs


The emergence of constructivism in foreign policy analysis

At the beginning of the relationship of international studies in1920 when separated from the discipline of political science, IR scholars engaged in trying to describe and explain the dramatic events such as international war and peace (Rskin, 1990 at Kubalkova, 2001). This event reflects the mechanism of a complex process and multiple layers, which consist of pursuing state goals in interacting with one another, and means the countries used to achieve their goals.
In the 1950s, however, the split occurred in the discipline of International Relations. discipline was divided into two subfields with different theoretical interests: analysis of foreign policy on the one hand, and theories of International Relations at the lain.meskipun still in touch with the focus on the discipline of International Relations, Foreign Policy Analysis (AKLN) seek answers the question of why countries do certain foreign policy, through exploring what happens in the country. Meanwhile, the Theory of International Relations, focusing attention on international relations as a system, and then learn about the influence on the behavior of the system state. The start of the whole, the other from all the parts (kubalkova, 2001: 15). To this day, according to Margot Light (1994: 93), this separation continues to exist, Analysis of Foreign Policy and International Relations Theory is an intellectual separated, and to a certain extent their position against one another.
The division came from the disruption of social science scientific revolution in 1950, with its impact on the study of international relations emerged as the debate traditionalism versus behaviorism / scientism (Kubalkova, 2001: 17 -8). unlike a lot of philosophical traditionalism, scientism represents a major commitment to careful empirical investigation, data collection, model formulation either statistics or mathematics in the natural procedures and verification models. Collaboration between International Relations theory and scientism generate a theoretical project stresses on the system - an explanation stating the level of behavior that can be read through the neo-realism, neo-liberalism, neo-Marxism in the expanse of the examination of a more micro-level explanations such as individual and group influences (hudson. 2002: 2)
During the development of scientific Foreign Policy Analysis in the year 1960-80 has produced many scholars systematically (but not systemic) work analysis framework, known as the Comparative Study of Foreign Policy (SPKLN). Most of them believe Comparative Study of Foreign Affairs has strengthened the power of generalization of research on foreign policy. on the other hand, there are opinions that the Comparative Study of Foreign Affairs of the relative neglect of the wealth of descriptive studies particular attention to the government.
As artificial contradiction between Foreign Policy Analysis and International Relations Theory leads to the paradox for Foreign Policy Analysis itself. On the one hand, it is an asset, and is a weakness on the other hand it is the power due to Foreign Policy Analysis is not affected by the rise and fall of a particular paradigm in the discipline of International Relations. moreover, no need for Foreign Policy Analysis scholars to engage with the paradigm of a certain flow to their research. They are flexible to work in an interdisciplinary project with other areas outside the discipline of International IHubungan. The disadvantage, however, in the sense that although the theory of international relations clearly its potential has never admitted the status of Foreign Policy Analysis in International Relations, and therefore they never considered seriously Policy Analysis in International Relations such as thematic issues that should be the case (houghton. 2007: 27).
What hougthton see as a weakness only be imagined from the fact. Some efforts have been encouraging signals that the Foreign Policy Analysis continues to attract international relations theory. Survey into some theoretical topics of International Relations textbooks to inform students about how to attract Foreign Policy Analysis is to International Relations theorists. Viotti Paul and Mark Kauppi (1999:199-225) include discussion of foreign policy into their text book chapters liberalism. Viotti and Kauppi memghubungkan issues of foreign policy with dependency theory. At other times, K. J. Holsti (1995), Charles Kegley Jr. and Eugene Wittkopt (2004: 61-91) combines Foreign Policy Analysis with structural realism or neo-realism. These companies demonstrate the ways that International Relations theorists try to educate connect Analysis of Foreign Policy to the ongoing debate in International Relations Theory.
The arrival of ideational factors in international relations theory has opened the way for constructivists to engage closely with the Foreign Policy analysis. Focus on ideational factors such as inter-subjectivity and the construction of meaning as opposed to factors that are considered material proved to be a post-cold war trend for Foreign Policy Analysis Affairs, although in the beginning he did not have the emphasis on social factors than the current study constructivist Foreign Policy Analysis (katzentein, 1996; Hopf, 2002). In strengthening the position of constructivism in Foreign Policy Analysis, Wendt (1999:3) came out with the idea that constructivist assumptions underlying the phenomenological tradition of the Foreign Policy Analysis.

Decision-making approach and crashed in the theory subfield of foreign policy analysis, in the field of international relations is greater. Foreign policy analysis (known as FPA) is distinguished from other theoretical approaches in international relations with the insistence that the focal point of the explanation must be a foreign policy decision-makers themselves and not structural or systemic phenomenon is greater. Explanation of variables from all levels of analysis, from the most micro to the most macro, are of interest to analysts to the extent that they affect the decision making process. Thus, from all subfields of international relations, integrative theoretical enterprise FPA is the most radical. Investigations into the role that personality variables, perceptions and constructions of meaning, group dynamics, organizational process, bureaucratic politics, domestic politics, culture, and systems play in decision-making structure of foreign policy is the core research agenda of the FPA. But as Richard Snyder, co-founder of FPA, and his colleagues Henry Bruck and Burton Sapin recorded in 1954, this is only important because it affects only the right agent in the international human-affairs decision-makers:
In a sense, then, in the age-old philosophy of social science debate about whether the agent or structure is a major determinant of behavior in the social world, FPA down right next to the agent. FPA is an agent-centered theory of international relations. foreign policy analysts argue that without an account of human agency in international relations theory, one can not develop a satisfactory account of the changes from time to time in international affairs. Furthermore, given the great destructive power inherent in international relations, the explanation which removes the examination of the role and effectiveness of human agency in the use and contains less power than they should.
Here, then, is again the difference between the approach of FPA and other acceptable approaches to understanding international relations. Not only FPA gives an account of the agent, but gives specific, not account, the public agency. In approaches such as game theory and rational choice explanations of foreign policy, the actor is conceptualized as a rational, utility maximizing decision maker generic. Conversely, the theory of FPA dismantle the generic "black-boxed" actor and found that the idiosyncrasies of the actors do influence the foreign policy choices. To use a term coined by Alexander George, FPA is more interested in the actor-specific "theories" of the actor-general "theory".
In sum, then, FPA generate integrative, agent-oriented, and actor-specific theory of radicals. In three ways, it remains a unique and easily distinguished subfield of international relations.
A Word About Explanandum What foreign policy analysts trying to explain? To use a common phrase, what the dependent variable in FPA?
Despite efforts to formulate "foreign policy" in terms of the operationalization of variables is consistent, it must be admitted that what had been shown to vary across the research programs in the FPA. Some programs focus on foreign policy as the output of decision making; others focus on the process of decision making in foreign policy. For example, the use of event data (discussed below) as the dependent variable is an example of one conceptualization of foreign policy as an output. In this tradition, foreign policy "events" obtained from the media can be encoded to some set of variables, such as the level of commitment implied by the events on the part of the act. Coding standards and then allow for direct comparison of output from various nation-state actors, as well as enabling a longitudinal analysis of the behavior of a nation's foreign policy.
It is also possible to take a more process-oriented approach to what is meant by foreign policy. For example, one can use the policy positions of various parties as the dependent variable, tracing how a particular position to be dominant in decision-making group from time to time. One of the cats could walk again but the other steps and examine how such policy stance crystallized in the first place of the basic cognitive processes such as perception, problem representation, and construction of meaning back again. Steps will be asked how come the group decision-making in the first place, how the structure and process groups that are created and changed from time to time within a society. Role of the conception of the nation-state, and about the various agencies and groups within the nation-state, could also be a focus of investigation.
Both approaches to the explanandum in the FPA has beneficial use, and insight from every kind of research to inform the other. It is true that the explanandum choice affects the choice of methodology: statistical testing of aggregate data may be useful in studies of events, while the process of tracking and interpretivist analysis might be more helpful with the process-oriented conceptualization of foreign policy.

COLD WAR



Cold War is the designation for a period in which the conflict, tension, and competition between the United States (and its Western allies disebutBlok) and the Soviet Union (and its allies called the Eastern Bloc) which occurred between the years 1947-1991. Competition both occur in different areas: military coalitions, ideology, psychology, and look a password, military, industrial, and technological development, defense, nuclear and arms race, and more. Feared that this war will end with a nuclear war, which ultimately did not happen. The term "Cold War" itself was introduced in 1947 by Bernard Baruch and Walter Lippman of the United States to describe the relations between these two superpowers.
After the U.S. and Soviet Union allied and managed to destroy Nazi Germany, the two sides differed on how the proper way to build post-war Europe. Over the next few decades, competition between them to spread into Europe and reaching out to the world when the U.S. build a "defense" against communism by forming a number of alliances with various countries, especially with countries in Western Europe, the Middle East, and Southeast Asia.
Although the two superpowers never fought directly, but conflict between them indirectly have caused many local wars such as the Korean War, the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia and Hungariadan Vietnam War. Results of the Cold War including (from several points of view) the dictatorship in Greece and South America. Cuban Missile Crisis is also the result of the Cold War and East Crisis Tengahjuga has become more complex due to the Cold War. Another impact is the division of Germany into two parts, namely West Germany and East Germany are separated by the Berlin Wall. But there are also times where the tension and rivalry between them is reduced. Cold War began to end in the 1980's when Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev launched the reform programs, perestroika and glasnost. Constantly, the Soviet Union lost the power and authority to Eastern Europe and finally disbanded in 1991.

Nuclear As Penangkalan Strategy
In carrying out the strategy of nuclear penangkalan there are some basic assumptions that must be owned:

1. Defensive character, a new strategic interactions take place during or after the first attack of the opponent.
2. Retaliatory attacks carried out by relying on weapons that can be saved from the first attack your opponent.
3. Rationality and the mirror-image, the other side think the same logic as he does.
In carrying out its strategy penangkalan there are two mechanisms that can be used. The first mechanism is the punishment which focuses on the use of offensive weapons and rely on counterattacks against non-military targets (countervalue). The effectiveness of this mechanism lies in the ability to save the number of offensive weapons possessed from the first attack (first strike) opponent. The second mechanism is the denial that involves the use of direct military force to prevent an attack on the opponent's state-controlled region. This mechanism focuses on the use of defensive weapons and rely on the attack against military objects (counterforce).

Nuclear Strategy in the Cold War Period
At first monopoly of nuclear weapons in the hands of the United States, which since 1945 until 1949. The Soviet Union's new master nuclear technology in 1949, but not have the interest to develop nuclear weapons. This is caused by the domination of thought in the formulation of Joseph Stalin in the Soviet Union's military strategy. Stalin is the orthodox interpreters of Marx and Engels. Both leaders said that the victory in every battle is only determined by the forces of moral discipline. By Stalin, the premise is then formulated and standardized as a key element to winning the war. Also, Stalin was also a strong believer in conventional forces and did not believe the attack-pendadakan (surprise attack).

United States Nuclear Strategy
To deal with the Soviet Union who have been able to master nuclear technology, the United States in the mid-1950s to develop strategimassive retaliation. This strategy states that the strategic and tactical nuclear forces the United States is used not only to deter nuclear attacks against the United States and its allies but also to ward off any attack communist countries against other countries around the world. To support this strategy the United States developed hydrogen bombs, tactical nuclear weapons and long-range bombers (B-52). In 1953 tactical nuclear weapons stationed in Europe began in 1955 and a strategic bomber B-52 began operations.
However, this strategy contains kelemamahan namely, first, the United States is doubtful to use nuclear weapons. This view is based on the fact that in previous conventional war (Korean War) United States does not use nuclear weapons. Second, the United States is not able to guarantee himself to avoid a U.S. nuclear attack. Though effective penagkalan effect if the United States are not in a position vulnerable to Soviet nuclear attack. Third, the United States nuclear attack against the Soviet Union to rely on an air base in the UK & Western Europe while the Western conventional forces in Europe is smaller than the conventional forces of the Soviet Union with the United States thus has not had sufficient means to make the Soviet Union to its knees. To overcome these weaknesses the United States and then develop the idea of Limited Nuclear War to complement the strategy of massive retaliation. Thought it recognizes that not all aggression against the West can be resisted by doing a direct attack to the Soviet Union.
Once again this strategy dpandang flawed because it can encourage the Soviet Union attacked the United States because it already knows the weakness strategy of massive retaliation, causing local conflict and the possibility of limited nuclear war becomes increasingly large. Thus what happens is a paradox: avoiding nuclear war even trigger a global nuclear war.
In the 1960's the United States developed a strategy of flexible response. Core strategy lies in the flexibility of the United States in the face of security threats by increasing its capacity to deal with all forms of war, large-scale or limited, nuclear or conventional. This strategy emphasizes the prinsipcounterforce with an excuse to reduce the number of civilian casualties in case of nuclear war. By implementing the principle of counterforce then open the opportunity for the United States to conduct preemptive attacks.
This strategy also has a weakness that is effective counterforce strategic weapons if the United States used these weapons before the opponent is used. Counterforce means to stimulate the United States to conduct a first strike becomes greater. This led to the threat of nuclear war became greater as the Soviet Union will see the implications and make efforts to not be attacked first. This is evidenced by the policy of the Soviet Union to develop ICBMs (Inter-continental Ballistic Missile) and SLBM (Sea Launch Ballistic Missile) in the mid-1960s. This condition can threaten the occurrence of an uncontrolled arms race.
The weakness is pushing the United States to develop new nuclear strategy. The strategy called MAD (Mutual Assured Destruction). This strategy emphasizes on thinking "anyone who started the first attack will not win the war or be the loser because the power at (second strike) both parties will execute great vengeance." This thought led to the United States of trying to strategize for a number of strategic weapons is not vulnerable from attack-impromptu opponent. The answer given the United States for those needs is to stop the development of the number of its ICBMs by 1054, but increase the number of SLBM it as a system that is not prone to sudden attack. In contrast to the flexible response that uses the principle of counterforce, MAD uses the principle countervalue.
To keep penangkalan effect of this strategy, namely the destruction of a convincing (assured destruction), effective the United States trying to strengthen its security ties with the Soviet Union by arms control. This is needed because if the number of weapons has exceeded the amount required then the strategic value of this strategy will be lost. One positive effect of MAD is to achieve agreement on the ABM (Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty) and the SALT I (Strategic Arms Limited Talks I) in 1972.
However, the development of weapons the Soviet Union in the 1970's re-birth of increasing criticism of U.S. nuclear strategy. MAD strategy is no longer felt able to confront the Soviet Union's weapons capabilities has increased. The United States also considered no longer enough just to rely on attacks on the cities and industrial centers of the Soviet Union. This thought is trying to push the United States to also run on the principle of counterforce nuclear strategy. In addition, the United States is deemed necessary to improve the ability of its weaponry and determine a set of goals that will be destroyed in the event of war. These criticisms and then gave birth to the so-called Presidential Directive 59 (PD 59) in 1980. PD 59 provides guidelines on what should be the United States in the face of conflict with the Soviet Union. PD 59 includes tens of thousands of list of goals that will destroy the United States in the event of war. However, although containing tens of thousands of target list, target-taget can be categorized into four major groups namely:
1) nuclear power the Soviet Union;
2) The power of conventional;
3) Leadership and political-military leadership and communication facilities, and;
4) The goals of economic and industry of the Soviet Union.
Post-Cold War Nuclear Strategy
In 1994 conducted a review of the nature, role and number of nuclear weapons the United States. The results of this review adalahNuclear Posture Review (NPR) 1994. However, the contents of the NPR in 1994 this is still a conservative. United States still take the attitude of wait and seemenghadapi interasional situation changes that occur.
Post-Cold War pushed the United States to develop nuclear arms control arrangements. United States effort is centered on the START treaty (Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty) II, which was agreed in 1993. START II agreement contains the United States and Russia to reduce the number of nuclear weapons: from 12,000 nuclear warheads in 1990 to between 3000 and 3500 in 2003. However, in 1997 the reduction was extended until 2007 due to political and technical issues. In addition, the United States is also working with countries other ex-Soviet Union to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons due to "nuclear leakage".

Theory of International Relations


According to Stephen M. Walt since the cold war saw various changes in the theory of international relations. Various theories and methods developed. Also accompanied by the emergence of a variety of new issues such as ethnic conflict, the environment and the future of the nation-state ¬.
There are three paradigms discussed by Walt in her article, namely, Realism, Liberalism and Constructivism. In the discussion on the Walt extensively covered the developments that occurred in each paradigm.

Realism
One contribution of realism is its attention to issues relative gains and absolute gains. Responding to the institutionalists who argue that international institutions allows countries to leave short-term profits to achieve long-term benefits, the realists such as Joseph Grieco and Stephen Krasner claimed that the system that anarchy forces states to pay attention simultaneously: 1) absolute gains from cooperation and, 2 ) rules of the game in the distribution of benefits among participants. The logic is, if a state benefit is greater than the other then it will gradually become stronger. While other countries will be more susceptible (vulnerable).
In addition, the realists have also been quick in responding to new issues. Barry Possen offers a realist explanation of ethnic conflict. He noted that the breakup of multiethnic countries of ethnic groups put the opponent in an anarchic situation. Intensity sparking fear and seduce (tempting) for each group to use force to improve their relative position. This problem will get worse when in the territory of each group there are pockets (enclaves) which was inhabited by ethnic opponents. Because each party will be tempted to do the cleaning (cleanse) - are preemptive - a minority group and its expansion to include members of their group who are outside their borders.
But according to Walt, the development of the most interesting concept of the realist paradigm is the emergence of differences in thinking between "defensive" and "offensive". Such defensive realists among Waltz, Van Evera and Jack Snyder assumes that states have little intrinsic interest in the military conquest (military Conquest). With reason, costs incurred for the expansion, generally, is greater than the benefits. For them, most of the great war (the great power wars) is caused by domestic groups that exaggerate the perception of threat and the belief that high against the efficacy of military force.
These circles see that war is more likely to occur when the possibility to make conquests among countries is very easy to do. But when the defense is easier than offense, security would appear everywhere, the drive for expansion is reduced and cooperation will flourish. And if the defense had the advantage and countries are able to distinguish between a weapon for defense and attack, then the countries can acquire the means to defend themselves without threatening other countries. Thus rid of the effects of the system that anarchy. In view of the realist-defensive, "states merely sought to survive and guarantee great powers Could Their balancing security by forming alliances and choosing defensive military postures (Such as retaliatory nuclear forces)"
But that view was challenged from a number of other theorists. Among them are Peter Liberman, who wrote the opposite, that the benefits of doing conquest (Conquest) is often greater than the costs. Liberman put forward his argument by giving a number of such cases, the Nazi occupation of Western Europe and Soviet hegemony over Eastern European countries. Thereby throwing doubt on claims that the military expansion is not effective anymore.
Criticism also came from the offensive realists such as, Eric Labs, John Mearsheimer and Fareed Zakaria, who claimed that the situation of anarchy encourages states to try to maximize their relative power because no one country can be sure when a revisionist power will actually appear.
These differences lead to differences in views between the realist view of international issues, such as the future of Europe. For the defensive realists such as Van Evera, war is not only less profitable and often born of militarism, hypernationalism, or a variety of distortions arising from domestic factors. Van Evera believe that the majority of military force has no role (absent) in the post-cold war era. He concluded that "the region is" primed for peace "." Instead the offensive realists argue that the system that anarchy encourages big powers to compete regardless of their internal characteristics and the competition will return to European security.
 
LiberalismIn writing this review about the development of Walt's theory of 'democratic peace'. This theory argues, although democracy seems "sponsoring" the war but he seldom make war between them. Because democratic norms against the use of violence against each other.
But the belief is currently getting some shots of new developments from a number of theoreticians. Snyder and Edward Mansfield stressed that these countries will be easier to fight if they are in the midst of transition to democracy. Thus, efforts to export democracy will further exacerbate the situation.
Strong evidence of democracy at war with each other not only in times of post-1945. As stated Joanne Gowa that emptiness conflict in post-1945 period was due importance to confront the Soviet Union than to share the principles of democracy.
Similarly, from the ranks of liberal-institutionalists, a number of new developments. At present for them, the institution is seen as a facilitator for cooperation among the countries that have similar interests. And agreed that countries can not be forced to cooperate if it is contrary to the interests of the country.
While the liberal-economic stream of the opinion that "globalization" of the world market, the emergence of transnational networks and NGOs and the rapid spread of global communications technology to reduce the power of countries and change the world's attention from the question of military security to economic and social welfare issues.
For Walt despite changes in thinking this but essentially remains the same logic that is, the global community are trapped into the web of economic and social issues related to each other and the risk of damaging jejalinan effectively block the actions of unilateralist countries, especially in terms of use of violence (force). This perspective implicitly declared that the war will remain an option is deep in the countries of the advanced industrial democracies (the Advanced Industrial Democracies.) For them to bring China and Russia into the world of capitalism is the best way to promote prosperity and peace, especially if this process produces a strong middle class in the country and strengthen the pressure for democratization.
 
Constructivism
If realism and liberalism focuses on factors that are material (visible) such as power and trade, the constructivist focus on the idea. Constructivist give attention to state interests and identity as a product that can be formed from a particular historical process. They pay attention to the existing public discourse in the community because discourse reflects and form beliefs and interests, and maintain norms that became the foundation of society act (accepted norms of behavior). Thus constructivists pay attention to the sources of change (sources of change). With this approach, the constructivist replaced marxism as the preeminent radical perspective on international relations.
According to the constructivist perspective, the main issues in the post cold war issues related to how social groups conceive of different (to prepare and understand) the interests and identity.
Constructivist studies give attention to the problems how ideas and identities are formed, how ideas and identities are developed and how ideas and identities to form the state of understanding and responding to conditions in the vicinity.
One characteristic of constructivism is a non-universalist. There is no singularity analysis of the phenomenon. Walt pointed out if Wendt focuses on the question of how anarchy is understood by the countries, then the other constructivist emphasis on the problems the future of the territorial state. They argue that transnational communication and dissemination of the values of civil (civic values) to change the traditional national loyalty and generate radically new forms of political ties (political association).
In the table below, Walt provides a number of differences among the three thought.
Table: Perspectives on the Difference Between HI
Competing Liberalism Realism Constructivism Paradigm
Main theoretical proposition states Self-interest Constantly Compete for power or security Concern for power overridden by economic / political considerations (desire for prosperity, commitment to liberal values) State behavior shaped by elite beliefs, collective norms, and social identities
Main unit of analysis Individual States States (especially elites)
Main Economic instruments and especially military power Varies (international institutions, economic exchange, democracy promotion) Ideas and discourse
Modern theories Hans Morgenthau
Kenneth Waltz Michael Doyle
Robert Keohane Alexander Wendt
John Ruggie
Representative works of modern Waltz, Theory of International Politics.
Mearsheimer, "Back to the Future: instability in Europe after the Cold War" (International Security, 1990) Keohane, After Hegemony.
Fukuyama, "The End of History?" (National Interest, 1989) Wendt, "Anarchy Is What States Make of It" (International Organization, 1992)
Koslowski and Kratochwil, "Understanding Changes in International Politics" (International Organization, 1994)
Post-cold war event prediction Resurgence of great power competition Increased cooperation as liberal values, free market, spreads and international institution. Agnostic Because it can not Predict the content of ideas
Main limitation Does not account for international change Tends to ignore the role of power of describing the past Better Than anticipating the future
Source: Walt, Foreign Policy, No. 110, Spring 1998.
While Steve Smith wrote, to understand current international theories, there are two distinction which must be understood first. First, the difference between "explanatory theory" and "constitutive theory". Both of the "foundational theory" and "anti-foundational theory".
For an explanatory theory, the world outside the theory. Conversely constitutive theory states that the existing theories of constructing the world. That is, for the self-explanatory to understand the world not affected by subjectivity factor dynamics of actors in social dunai. The world is objective. But instead, the constitutive view the world as a result of individual understanding of their social environment.
About the difference between the foundational theory and anti-foundational theory lie in the issue of whether the conviction (belief) about the world can be tested or evaluated using a procedure that is neutral and objective. For the foundationalist truth can be measured so that the justification of right or wrong can be done. In contrast, anti-foundationalist believes that that is true or false justification of truth claims can not be done because there is never anything neutral that can do that. In fact, every theory determines its own so-called facts.
Explanatory theory tends to foundationalism and the constitutive theory tends to anti-foundationalism. Most recent international theories are in groups such as the anti-foundational theory, postmodernism, some feminist theories and most of the normative theory (normative theory).
While historical sociology (historical Sociology) and critical theory tends to be in a position foundationalisme. But in between these two poles there is social constructivism (social constructivism), which was in the middle.
Also in the dynamics of international theories there is also debate between positivism and non-positivism yangmenyebabkan occurrence of three major groups, namely:
1. Rationalism. Within this group there are neo-liberalism and neo-realism.
2. Reflektivisme. Within this group there is postmodernism, feminist theory, normative theory (normative theory), critical theory, and historical sociology (historical Sociology).
3. Social constructivism. Located in the middle of the two poles.
Neo-Neo Synthesis
In this article Smith explains that in further development, especially since the 1980s, realism and liberalism reached a point in common. "Essentially EACH Same looked at the issue from different sides: That issue was the effect of international institutions on the behavior of states in a situations of International Anarchy."
In the debates that went on between these two perspectives, there are two points that need to be observed is, first, the neo-realist emphasis on relative gains while the neo-liberal emphasis on absolute gains. The difference is, say there is a cake, if then the countries thought to get the biggest slice of cake from the other without regard to the size of the cake so he put more emphasis on relative gains. Meanwhile, if the countries thought to enlarge the size of the pie for the whole country to get a big piece of cake then these countries put more emphasis on absolute gains.
Second, neo-realists do not believe that international institutions can overcome the results of international anarchy. In contrast to the neo-liberal, reduce the occurrence of misunderstanding and cooperation between countries to prevent the effects posed by international anarchy. Then too, if the neo-realist emphasis on security issues, neo-liberal emphasis on issues of political economy.
Smith also noted, following Baldwin, there are four weaknesses that are owned by the 'neo-neo synthesis':
1. Both perspectives leave issues the use of force is the key to the main difference between realism and liberalism in the decades-decade earlier. Both perspectives seem to try to undermine the relevance of these issues in the modern world today.
2. If previously liberalism see actors as moral agents and realist view of actors as power maximizers then in the development of 'neo-neo debate "both agree that the actors are value maximizers.
3. If before a debate in which the realists emphasize the state as an actor and liberalism emphasizes the non-state actors ¬ then in the 'neo-neo debate "both agree that the state is a major actor in international politics.
4. If realism see the conflict as the key to understanding international politics and liberalism see collaboration as something that is important then the neo-neo debate saw both of them, both cooperation and conflict as the focus of attention.
'Neo-neo synthesis' can be said is born as a response to the failure of realism and classical liberalism in analyzing international phenomenon that is not completely gone as what diteorisasikan by two paradigm. That was caused by the behavior of international actors who tend to be pragmatic, in the sense of utilizing both approaches in achieving its interests, causing an international social reality can not be viewed in black and white from the perspective of each approach.
The phenomenon of 'neo-neo synthesis' is not just changing the number of pre-existing views on each approach but also gave birth to a number of similarities second opinion on this thought that caused the decreasing gap between the (neo) realism and (neo) liberalism.
Social Constructivism: Bridging The Gap
If we follow the pattern of distribution made by Lapid him over then in the chart, the three major groups that will look like this:

Constructivist position is between rationalism and reflektivisme for Smith's own benefit because it can be a bridge connecting both sides of mutual "fighting" and difficult to reach common ground. As written by him,
"I am sure That it Promises to be one of the most Important theoretical development of recent decades; the reason Is That Is That if it deliver what it Promises Could It would then it would be the dominant theory in the discipline, since it Could Relate to the all other approaches on Their own terms, whereas at the moment there is virtually no contact Between rationalist theories and reflectivist since They do not share the Same view of how to build knowledge.
To complete the explanation above regarding constructivism Walt's good to see some of the core of Alexander Wendt thinking that has been summarized by Steve Smith in his article entitled New Approaches to International Theory. According to Wendt, the neo-realists and neo-liberal identity and interest is something given, something already granted. Wendt did not believe so, he saw that the identities and interests are the result of inter-subjective practices between actors. In other words the identity and interests are the result of an interaction process. Although neo-realists and neo-liberals admit that the process of interaction affects the behavior of the actors but not for the identity and interests.
In addition, Wendt also stated that determine the structure of collective meaning that govern our actions. And the actors acquire the interests and identity melalaui participation in the collective meaning. Identities and interests are relational and are defined As We defined situations.
It seems increasingly clear that in contrast to (neo) realism and (neo) liberalism, constructivism provides a different explanation in analyzing social phenomena, particularly international phenomenon. Constructivist view of social phenomenon is the result of formation of the interaction between international actors, in contrast with the realism and liberalism. Who see there are elements that just there without the intervention of international actors (given).
The model analysis provided by constructivism can not be separated from development trends influence current social discourse more focus on the issues "world of ideas" which focuses on issues of social construction of reality. The development of theories of this model can not be discharged influence of a group of German social scientists known as madhhabs Frankfurt (Frankfurt School), where one of his famous thinker is Juergen Habermas. From this Frakfurt madhhabs then developed theories reflektivisme with different variants.
If related to the contemporary era, where the mobility and the amount of information daily milling is very high (information age), this theory has a very significant relevance. Because the current rule is no longer perpetuated by force of arms alone but also through the media information that can construct the public consciousness.
It's just about the idea of constructivism (especially constructivism Wendt), Steve Smith gave Wendt criticism that the idea is not entirely to be the bridge that connects the gap between rationalism (neo-realism and neo-liberalism) and reflektivisme (critical theory, postmodernism, etc.) . There are five reasons stated Smith:
1. Wendt constructivist thinking is not good enough for the likes reflektivis among the more radical views than Wendt.
2. Wendt too "smelly" realist. It can be seen from the opinion which states "to That extent, I am a statist and realist." Wendt means that the country is still looking at the main actors and the state continues to dominate. And who wants to change this thinking by reflektivisme.
3. Wendt's desire to combine rationalist and reflektivis for Smith was not possible mainly concerned about the issue "how to construct knowledge." Rationalists have temporary basis reflektivis positivist post-positivist. These two views differ so much that it is difficult to combine.
4. The concept of 'structure' which suggested Wendt less material. Because for Wendt structure is what is understood at the head of the actor. While for many scientists understood the structure as a reflection of material interests.
5. Wendt argues that identity comes from the interaction process. Smith's criticism given above opinion is that we do not come into an interaction without carrying identity previously obtained. This means that the identity we've gained previously will affect other parties involved in a process of interaction, and vice versa.
Stephen M. Walt also gave his criticism of constructivism that konstruksivisme weakness lies in its inability to provide a solution to the problem (of describing the past Better Than anticipating the future).

CLASSICAL ECONOMICS

growth and economic development have a different definition, namely economic growth is the increase in output per capita is constant over the long term. Economic growth is one indicator of successful development. Thus the higher economic growth is usually higher the welfare of the community, although there are other indicators of income distribution. While economic development is an effort to increase per capita income by way of cultivating the potential economic power into the real economy through investment, technology usage, additional knowledge, skills improvement, increasing the organizational capacity and management. Economic development is defined in some sense by using different language by experts, but the point remains the same. According to Adam Smith's economic development is a process of fusion between population growth and technological progress (Suryana, 2000:55). Todaro (in Lepi T. Tarmidi, 1992:11) defines development as a multidimensional process involving major changes in social structure, social attitudes, national institutions as well as accelerating economic growth, inequality reduction and elimination of absolute poverty. Economic development by Irawan (2002: 5) are efforts to improve the standard of living of a nation that is often measured by the level of real income per capita. Prof. Meier (in Adisasmita, 2005: 205) defines economic development as a process of rising real income per capita in a long period of time. Sadono Sukirno (1985:13) defines economic development as a process that causes the per capita income of a resident of a community increases in the long term. The definition implies that economic development is a change that occurs on an ongoing basis through a series combination of the process in order to achieve something better that is an increase in per capita income held constant in the long term. According to Schumpeter (in Suryana, 2000:5), economic development is not harmonious or gradual process, but represents a change in the spontaneous and did not falter. Economic development is mainly caused by changes in the field of industry and trade. Economic development is associated with income per capita and national income. Income per capita is the average income of a local population while the national income is the value of production of goods and services created in an economy in the period of one year. Increased national income and per capita income over time can be used to determine the rate of economic growth and also the development of a regional level of social welfare. In terms of economic development is used as a guideline as a process that causes the per capita income of a resident of a community increases in the long term. Meanwhile, economic growth according to Prof. Simon Kuznets (in Jhingan, 2000: 57), is a long term increase in the ability of a country to provide more and more types of economic goods to its population. This ability to grow in accordance with technological advances, and institutional and ideological adjustments needed. This definition has 3 (three) components: first, the economic growth of a nation can be seen from the increasing continuous supply of goods; second, advanced technology was a factor in economic growth that determines the degree of growth capability in the provision of various kinds of goods to residents; third, the use of technology widely and efficiently requires an adjustment in the field of institutional and ideology so that innovation generated by knowledge of mankind can be utilized appropriately. With other languages, Boediono (1999:8) says economic growth is the process of increasing output in the long term.


GNP and GDP
What distinguishes between GDP and GNP (gross national product) is a transfer payment (payment factor, TR) factors of production from domestic and abroad. GDP to calculate the amount of goods and services produced within a country and do not distinguish / to see the ownership of factors of production. As for the GNP to calculate the amount of goods and services produced by factors of production owned by a country, regardless of whether the goods and services produced within or outside the country. In general, for developing countries GDP greater than the GNP. 

Classical economics
a. Economy According to Adam Smith (1723-1790)

Smith is a professor of philosophy who became interested in understanding naturalist. His experience, from the school in its path, as well as from the introduction to the great scholars of his day (especially in his trip to Europe), the more mature ideas about the economic philosophy he developed later. According to Smith's human behavior has a motive of self-love, sympathy, wants independence, a sense of politeness, good work and happy to mutually exchange. This is the basis for the discussion of the theories of Adam Smith.
Operationalize economic system that grounds it is an economy with free competition, which is governed by a hidden hand. Government duty in the field of security that protect their people, uphold justice, and prepare the infrastructure and public institutions. Protection in a variety of economic activities was removed, the monopoly was abolished, and everyone knows what is best for him and what should be exchanged for others, so that the nation's wealth can be increased.
Smith's value theory is a theory that is used in production costs, although originally he used the theory of labor value. Goods have a use value and exchange value. Cost of production determines the relative prices of goods, so as to create two kinds of prices, ie natural price and base price. In the long term market prices will tend to equal the natural price. However, with the theory that value, the question arises diamond-water paradox.
Adam Smith has pioneered the theory of production and distribution functional. Source of wealth nations are land, labor skills and capital differently. Thus, the question arises namely the distribution of wage income for workers, profits for the owners of capital and land rental for the host. However, Smith has not been seen in the discussion of issues of conflict, because the basic competition harmony. In the discussion has alluded to the possibility of rental rates will increase, while the wage rate decreases. Assuming prevailing-wage funds and over time the land becomes less fertile, being with a competitive rate of profit decline of economic activity eventually reach stationary phase.
Smith argues that the division of labor is very useful in efforts to increase productivity. The division of labor will develop a specialization. Increased population means increased labor, and this will increase demand and expand markets and encourage economic growth. However, the division of labor also has a social loss, because of the monotonous work atmosphere. Some thought Smith had the principle of disobedience, and in fact it is the duty of experts and subsequent thinkers to improve and develop it.

b. Economy According to David Ricardo (1772-1823)
Ricardo came up with the pressure range of economic science on aspects of the functional distribution. Economics to find the laws that explain the forces that govern the distribution. As a theorist and also a member of parliament Ricardo influence economic policy decisions such as to overcome the bullion-controversy, corn-laws controversy. Through the theory of distribution, Ricardo stated that the protection of the wheat farmers and workers who receive benefits, but the landlords. The higher the level of land lease, because of high grain prices. So it was not because of high rents which cause the price of corn is good, but on the contrary.
Ricardo uses the theory of labor value to explain the theory of value, because it required a Benchmark that has not changed, to measure the value of other goods. Assumptions of Ricardo's theory is still used, some assumptions Smith, and reinforce the additional assumptions, such as the coefficient remains the use of labor and capital, currency neutral. Both Ricardo, and Malthus explains that the economy will, to the stationary condition.
One of the largest donations Ricardo Classical economic theory is a theory of international trade through comparative cost advantage (comparative-cost). It is also based on the existence of specialization among countries. The size is not in terms of cost differences, and differences in absolute costs, but the differences in comparative cost. However, difficulties arise to explain the amount of goods and benefits of each country to trade, due to demand factors are not taken into account.

c. Economy by John Stuart Mill (1806-1873)
At the time of Mill, growing economic science as a profession, and various criticisms of classical economic thinking (Smith, Malthus, and Ricardo) studied by Mill. Meanwhile, socialist economic ideas began to also develop this last flow even go to attack a variety of classical economic thought. Classical basic economic system is laissez-faire, the hypothesis of population Malthus, the law of the land but the more decrease, wage fund theory challenged. In the time that Mill came up with his book Principle of Political Economy, with an eclectic their thoughts.
John Stuart Mill was influenced by the ideas of his father while his father is influenced by Jeremy Bentham's utilitarian philosophy with the flow. A heavy burden in studying philosophy, politics and other social sciences, has been brought into a state of mental breakdown. Socialist economic ideas also learned that thinking also influenced his works. This was shown by his attitude toward labor unions, wage fund, personal income distribution theory, and labor protection (demand shortening working hours, child labor protection.) J.S. Gives a huge mill in the usual method of economics is deductive switch and together with the inductive method. Because the laws (hypotheses) previously have not supported by empirical evidence. In addition, his discussion of the theory of value not only seen in terms of production costs, but has used the demand side through the theory of elasticity. Because of the criticism of the functional distribution theory (Ricardo and Smith), then Mill's his opinion, that the laws which regulate production of other laws that regulate the distribution of wealth. Mill also has introduced the Investment in human capital, ie skills, crafts and moral labor to improve productivity. Mill still maintaining the need for division of labor, while capital theory borrowed from the Senior.
Another donation is on the need for inheritance taxes and taxes for landlords, because landlords do not work but it takes some value of goods and when they died inherit great wealth. In this case, indirectly, taxes can serve as a means to distribute wealth. Mill also developed a theory of international trade by looking at the demand side, thus strengthening the theory of comparative advantage.

CLASSICAL ECONOMICS



growth and economic development have a different definition, namely economic growth is the increase in output per capita is constant over the long term. Economic growth is one indicator of successful development. Thus the higher economic growth is usually higher the welfare of the community, although there are other indicators of income distribution. While economic development is an effort to increase per capita income by way of cultivating the potential economic power into the real economy through investment, technology usage, additional knowledge, skills improvement, increasing the organizational capacity and management. Economic development is defined in some sense by using different language by experts, but maksunya remain the same. According to Adam Smith's economic development is a process of fusion between population growth and technological progress (Suryana, 2000:55). Todaro (in Lepi T. Tarmidi, 1992:11) defines development as a multidimensional process involving major changes in social structure, social attitudes, national institutions as well as accelerating economic growth, inequality reduction and elimination of absolute poverty. Economic development by Irawan (2002: 5) are efforts to improve the standard of living of a nation that is often measured by the level of real income per capita. Prof. Meier (in Adisasmita, 2005: 205) defines economic development as a process of rising real income per capita in a long period of time. Sadono Sukirno (1985:13) defines economic development as a process that causes the per capita income of a resident of a community increases in the long term. The definition implies that economic development is a change that occurs on an ongoing basis through a series combination of the process in order to achieve something better that is an increase in per capita income held constant in the long term. According to Schumpeter (in Suryana, 2000:5), economic development is not harmonious or gradual process, but represents a change in the spontaneous and did not falter. Economic development is mainly caused by changes in the field of industry and trade. Economic development is associated with income per capita and national income. Income per capita is the average income of a local population while the national income is the value of production of goods and services created in an economy in the period of one year. Increased national income and per capita income over time can be used to determine the rate of economic growth and also the development of a regional level of social welfare. In terms of economic development is used as a guideline as a process that causes the per capita income of a resident of a community increases in the long term. Meanwhile, economic growth according to Prof. Simon Kuznets (in Jhingan, 2000: 57), is a long term increase in the ability of a country to provide more and more types of economic goods to its population. This ability to grow in accordance with technological advances, and institutional and ideological adjustments needed. This definition has 3 (three) components: first, the economic growth of a nation can be seen from the increasing continuous supply of goods; second, advanced technology was a factor in economic growth that determines the degree of growth capability in the provision of various kinds of goods to residents; third, the use of technology widely and efficiently requires an adjustment in the field of institutional and ideology so that innovation generated by knowledge of mankind can be utilized appropriately. With other languages, Boediono (1999:8) says economic growth is the process of increasing output in the long term.

GNP and GDP
What distinguishes between GDP and GNP (gross national product) is a transfer payment (payment factor, TR) factors of production from domestic and abroad. GDP to calculate the amount of goods and services produced within a country and do not distinguish / to see the ownership of factors of production. As for the GNP to calculate the amount of goods and services produced by factors of production owned by a country, regardless of whether the goods and services produced within or outside the country. In general, for developing countries GDP greater than the GNP.


Classical economics
a. Economy According to Adam Smith (1723-1790)

Smith is a professor of philosophy who became interested in understanding naturalist. His experience, from the school in its path, as well as from the introduction to the great scholars of his day (especially in his trip to Europe), the more mature ideas about the economic philosophy he developed later. According to Smith's human behavior has a motive of self-love, sympathy, wants independence, a sense of politeness, good work and happy to mutually exchange. This is the basis for the discussion of the theories of Adam Smith.
Operationalize economic system that grounds it is an economy with free competition, which is governed by a hidden hand. Government duty in the field of security that protect their people, uphold justice, and prepare the infrastructure and public institutions. Protection in a variety of economic activities was removed, the monopoly was abolished, and everyone knows what is best for him and what should be exchanged for others, so that the nation's wealth can be increased.
Smith's value theory is a theory that is used in production costs, although originally he used the theory of labor value. Goods have a use value and exchange value. Cost of production determines the relative prices of goods, so as to create two kinds of prices, ie natural price and base price. In the long term market prices will tend to equal the natural price. However, with the theory that value, the question arises diamond-water paradox.
Adam Smith has pioneered the theory of production and distribution functional. Source of wealth nations are land, labor skills and capital differently. Thus, the question arises namely the distribution of wage income for workers, profits for the owners of capital and land rental for the host. However, Smith has not been seen in the discussion of issues of conflict, because the basic competition harmony. In the discussion has alluded to the possibility of rental rates will increase, while the wage rate decreases. Assuming prevailing-wage funds and over time the land becomes less fertile, being with a competitive rate of profit decline of economic activity eventually reach stationary phase.
Smith argues that the division of labor is very useful in efforts to increase productivity. The division of labor will develop a specialization. Increased population means increased labor, and this will increase demand and expand markets and encourage economic growth. However, the division of labor also has a social loss, because of the monotonous work atmosphere. Some thought Smith had the principle of disobedience, and in fact it is the duty of experts and subsequent thinkers to improve and develop it.

b. Economy According to David Ricardo (1772-1823)

Ricardo came up with the pressure range of economic science on aspects of the functional distribution. Economics to find the laws that explain the forces that govern the distribution. As a theorist and also a member of parliament Ricardo influence economic policy decisions such as to overcome the bullion-controversy, corn-laws controversy. Through the theory of distribution, Ricardo stated that the protection of the wheat farmers and workers who receive benefits, but the landlords. The higher the level of land lease, because of high grain prices. So it was not because of high rents which cause the price of corn is good, but on the contrary.
Ricardo uses the theory of labor value to explain the theory of value, because it required a Benchmark that has not changed, to measure the value of other goods. Assumptions of Ricardo's theory is still used, some assumptions Smith, and reinforce the additional assumptions, such as the coefficient remains the use of labor and capital, currency neutral. Both Ricardo, and Malthus explains that the economy will, to the stationary condition.
One of the largest donations Ricardo Classical economic theory is a theory of international trade through comparative cost advantage (comparative-cost). It is also based on the existence of specialization among countries. The size is not in terms of cost differences, and differences in absolute costs, but the differences in comparative cost. However, difficulties arise to explain the amount of goods and benefits of each country to trade, due to demand factors are not taken into account.

c. Economy by John Stuart Mill (1806-1873)
At the time of Mill, growing economic science as a profession, and various criticisms of classical economic thinking (Smith, Malthus, and Ricardo) studied by Mill. Meanwhile, socialist economic ideas began to also develop this last flow even go to attack a variety of classical economic thought. Classical basic economic system is laissez-faire, the hypothesis of population Malthus, the law of the land but the more decrease, wage fund theory challenged. In the time that Mill came up with his book Principle of Political Economy, with an eclectic their thoughts.
John Stuart Mill was influenced by the ideas of his father while his father is influenced by Jeremy Bentham's utilitarian philosophy with the flow. A heavy burden in studying philosophy, politics and other social sciences, has been brought into a state of mental breakdown. Socialist economic ideas also learned that thinking also influenced his works. This was shown by his attitude toward labor unions, wage fund, personal income distribution theory, and labor protection (demand shortening working hours, child labor protection.) J.S. Gives a huge mill in the usual method of economics is deductive switch and together with the inductive method. Because the laws (hypotheses) previously have not supported by empirical evidence. In addition, his discussion of the theory of value not only seen in terms of production costs, but has used the demand side through the theory of elasticity. Because of the criticism of the functional distribution theory (Ricardo and Smith), then Mill's his opinion, that the laws which regulate production of other laws that regulate the distribution of wealth. Mill also has introduced the Investment in human capital, ie skills, crafts and moral labor to improve productivity. Mill still maintaining the need for division of labor, while capital theory borrowed from the Senior.
Another donation is on the need for inheritance taxes and taxes for landlords, because landlords do not work but it takes some value of goods and when they died inherit great wealth. In this case, indirectly, taxes can serve as a means to distribute wealth. Mill also developed a theory of international trade by looking at the demand side, thus strengthening the theory of comparative advantage.