Thursday, September 30, 2010


Other conceptual framework "discussed today is that post-modernism. The idea is to believe in the arbitrary nature of modernity. This subscribes the idea that modernity is not a model and just an example that shaped the political system. Post-modernism also dismissed the idea of historical progress, saying that history does not move forward or backward. Because of the assumption that nothing is necessary, post-modernists believe that the existing arrangements are only made by humans, and what is understood as the truth is actually a choice "" created by a predecessor. Theorists such as Foucault also argues that reality is a social construction, and that people create and build the confidence and behavior. Language, conceptual frameworks and paradigms are also believed to form the world through very spread their ideas. Every time people believe and act on these ideas, the fact is emphasized by the next they will be built.
. A key by-product of this argument is that identity is one of the "more intimate" forms of social construction imposed on individuals. This has a profound influence on the fate and life of an individual, group and society, because it is often associated with problems such as intra-war, persecution and inter-state minority and majority policy privileges. The 1980s and 1990s has highlighted the concerns of various post-modernists such as the need for identity and their impact on human rights. Emphasis on discourse theory is also important in the way countries have attempted to adopt and project their legitimacy. This is especially true because the vast influence of communication and media.
The argument against Post-Modernism
Criticism of post-modernism, but the theory says it has a amoralism "base" with the rejection of any moral principles in general. They also do not agree with the theory of an inability to provide substantial explanations of historical events and ignore the more material processes of production, social relations and everyday life. A more serious criticism is that the social construction of modernism post-fundamentally flawed and that the theory itself produces a self-contradiction. Vasquez argues that if every idea is a social construction and nothing is permanent is true, then the world view of post-modernism is also a social construction, and therefore also temporal.
Impact of Post-Modernism Today
The post-modernist notion of identity as a social construction has a significant impact on the political climate today. This is mainly because has spawned the idea of creating a country, which consists of a community of people bound by common ancestry, but that does not have a geographical area to form a state. last year has seen the political activities of these countries, such as the Kurds and Tibetans, who seek the establishment of the state, but has rejected the constitutional sovereignty of their geographical master.
Post-modernism has, however inadequate in dealing with other urgent issues in international relations as a result of its ahistorical stance, for example, it ignores the history of Singapore from Malaysia and other chronological events in the current bilateral dispute. Post-modernism also ignores the problem of materials such as trade benefits as expressed by the United States treatment of the human rights situation in China.
As can be seen from the analysis of the various schools of thought, the study of international relations can not be limited to only one appropriate for each school. It is through combining various ideas and theories that one can obtain a more coherent picture of the scene of international relations, and therefore understand the various nuances and complexities.

Summary of Management Basics

A. Understanding Organisation
The word "organization" has 2 general sense. namely:
- Indicates an institution / functional groups.
- In connection with the organizing process, as a process where the activity is allocated.
The term has pengorganisasin macam2 understanding, including:
a. How formal struktuk2 design management for the most effective use of resources, financial, physical, material & labor organization.
b. How can an organization grouping activities together with the assignment of a manager who is authorized to mngawasi members of the group.
c. The relationship between fungsi2, position, duties, and employees.
d. The way in which the managers share more lajut task to be carried out in groups & mnedelegasikan authority necessary to perform tasks.
Organizing is a process of designing a formal structure, classify and organize and share tugas2 among members of the organization, for purposes of the organization efficiently reachable.
Unsur2 organizing:
1. Job
- A plan dr.
- Must be divided into bagian2.
- The division of tasks in accordance with the quantity of human resources organizations
2. The workplace
- Pekrjaan which has been divided must have a place for the execution of tasks.
- Places of work in this pengrtian including bahan2 & tools / support facilities.
3. People
- HR is one of the most important element in the organization.
- Because orang2 that determine the achievement of the objectives scr effective & efficient.
- Orang2 ynag work must have its place and in place.
4. The working relationship

 Organizational Structure
The organizational structure is defined as a formal mechanism where the organization is managed.
a. Ciri2 organization are:
1.) As the workplace.
2.) Is a process of cooperation at least 2 people.
3.) There are rights, obligations and responsibilities.
4.) There is a job.
5.) The existence of the delegation of authority.
6.) There are objective.
In the implementation of a good organization, a manager must act in order to succeed, where the action succeeded guana means managers have to master:
1. What actions should be done.
2. Who should be subordinate to and assist the work.
3. To the boss where to report.
4. Who subordinates who should be responsible.
5. Knowledge about group organization and other related groups.
6. Communication.

B. Authority
 Rights ruled utuk do something or other oraang to do work / do not do anything to achieve certain goals.
 This authority arises because of the relationship between superiors and subordinates, which is included in the authority is the power of managers in terms of:
a. Decision-making
b. Ruling subordinate
c. Use of resources
d. Implementation of activities / tasks
 Alasan2 the necessity of delegation:
1. Delegation of authority allows the manager to achieve better results when the task undertaken dr own manager.
2. In order for organizations to function more efficiently.
3. Allows managers to focus her energies on more important priorities tugas2.
4. Allows subordinates to grow and and develop, it can even be used as a tool for learning dr error.
5. Because managers do not always have to have all the knowledge needed to make a decision.

 Prinsip2 delegation of authority:
1. Responsibility, authority, and accountability.
2. The principle of unity of command
3. Scalar principle

 faktor2 failure of delegation of authority:;
a. Managers feel more if still maintaining decision-making rights.
b. Managers are not willing to face risks.
c. Managers do not / will not have confidence in the ability of subordinates.
d. Managers have a powerful desire.
e. Managers fear that subordinates will threaten his place.
f. Managers do not have the managerial ability to delegate authority.
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