Thursday, October 7, 2010

Foreign Politics

Foreign policy is a set purpose, procedures, and objectives, formulated by the people in a formal or authoritative position, which is directed against a number of actors or the condition of the environment outside the territory of a State, which aims to influence a specific target in a way that desired by decision makers. To be more clear, here is the foreign policy-making scheme:There are 2 factors to consider in making foreign policy: international factors and domestic factors. Both these factors are used as the basis for consideration by policy makers of foreign policy, which performs the decision making process. The resulting decision may be an adjustment, programs, problems / goals, and international orientation.International factors. International factors to consider foreign policy makers are:1. Global FactorsIn connection with the international political system that had a global impact and also the State in the context of foreign policy making.2. Regional FactorsIn connection with regional institutions (which consists of the State) that have particular impact on the formation of foreign policy of a State. It also includes the norms agreed upon in a particular region should be considered when a State determines its foreign policy.3. Bilateral RelationsWith regard to bilateral relations between state actors are also the institutions of global or regional level. Actor2 the data affect the State of a State by using alliances, traded, as well as economic and military threat.4. Non-State actorsAktor2 such transnational criminal networks, terrorist networks, multinational corporations, and human rights organizations, play a role that can shape and influence the foreign policy of a State.
Domestic factors. Faktor2 the attention of foreign policy makers are:1. BureaucracyBirokeasi often identified with the working slowness in adapting to changes in foreign policy, but likely there is one group within the bureaucracy who have access to effective high-level officials seek changes in policy.2. Public opinionPublic opinion becomes important when government officials need the support of voters in order to implement a policy as well as for re-election.3. MediaThe media plays an important role in setting the agenda, and shaping public opinion, the media provides information from government to the public, the media can be an investigator, provide new information for the government as well as public, which can affect changes in policy changes in foreign policy.4. Interest groupsInterest groups are organized group, which is involved in a number aktiviitas government decision-making. This group formed termask citizens, organized by content-specific issues, lobbying business, professional, and public law firma2.5. Political partyPolitical parties that provide support to the government, or to forward / change foreign policy.
Domestic and international faktor2 is absorbed by policy makers. As humans, policy makers are influenced characteristics inherent in looking at domestic and international faktor2, karakteristik2 attached are: beliefs, motives, decision-making style, interpersonal style, interest in foreign relations, and training that had obtained in relation abroad.Confidence refers to the basic asumsi2 padaa political leaders that resulted in the interpretation of the environment and further impact on strategi2 taken later. Motive refers to the reason why a foreign decision-makers to do that, and this meliputio and affiliation motive, motive power, and the motive for approval. Decision-making style refers to a method taken as a policy maker as they will open information or level of risk that must be taken.Interpersonal style refers to how a political leader to deal with other policy makers, which include two types, namely, paranoia (exaggerated fraud) and Machiavellian (manipulative behavior). Training obtained in foreign relations refers to the amount of experience earned a policy maker in the context of manufacture and what strategies will be taken. Interest in foreign relations based on interests that want to take a kebijaka makers overseas, where if the interest is going to take someone's foreign policy, where if the interest is small it tends to delegate it to others, while if large, it will monitoring directly.Decision-making process. Decision-making process undertaken by the political leaders have a number of stages. The stages are:1. Initial desire to make policy2. Stimulation of the environmental / foreign actor3. Receive a variety of information4. Doing connection between the problem with the policy5. Build a series of alternative6. Build an authoritative consensus on the choice7. Implement new policy
Foreign policy in the reign of Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono in 2004 - 2009, in his vision and mission include making efforts to establish foreign policy. That is by improving international cooperation and improve the quality of Indonesia's diplomacy in the framework of the national interest. Achievements Indonesia since January 1, 2007 to non-permanent member of the UN Security Council, which the Republic of Indonesia was elected by 158 UN member states. Duties of the Republic of Indonesia in the UN Security Council are:1). Rwanda Sanctions Committee Chairman2). Chairman of the working committee for peacekeeping force3). Chairman of the Committee for the Sierra Leone sanctions4). Vice Chairman of the Committee for completion konfik Sudan5) Vice Chairman of the Committee on the Congo conflict resolution6). Vice Kertua Guinea Bissau conflict resolution committeeRecently, Indonesia dare take a stand as the only country not a permanent council member who abstained when all other countries providing support to impose sanctions on Iran. Characteristics of Free Political Active Republic of Indonesia In the various descriptions of the politics of a free State is active, the Free and Active is called the nature of the foreign policy of the Republic of Indonesia. Even behind the words free and active still be added with the other properties, such as anti-colonialism, anti-imperialism. In the document Strategic Plan for the Implementation of Foreign Policy of the Republic of Indonesia (1984-1989) who was appointed by the Minister of Foreign Affairs, dated May 19, 1983, explained that the nature of the Foreign Policy are: (1) Free On .... (2) Anti-colonialism ... (3) Serving the National Interest and ... (4) Democratic. Foreign policy in the minutes prepared by the Head of Research and Development (R & D) Problems of Foreign Affairs Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Suli Solomon .... So-called foreign policy nature only Free Active and anti-colonialism and anti-Imperialism. While M. Sabir is more likely to use the term characteristics and properties separately. According to M Sabir, traits or characteristics are usually referred to a more permanent nature, while giving an adjective meaning ordinary properties that can be changeable.Thus because of the free and active is a trait that is permanently attached to the free and active political torso, the authors classify it as a political characteristics of free-active while the Anti-Colonialism and Anti-Imperialism describes as nature.

Friday, October 1, 2010

GLOBALIZATION

The term globalization, first used by Theodore Levitt in 1985 which refers to the political-economic, political, particularly free trade and financial transactions. Historically, the roots of globalization is the emergence of the electronic revolution and the disintegration of communist countries. Electronic revolution double acceleration of communication, transportation, production, and information. Disintegration of the communist countries that ended the Cold War allowed Western capitalism to be the only force that assume global hegemony. That is why in the field of trade and economic ideology, globalization is often referred to as the Decolonization (Oommen), recolonisation (Oliver, Balasuriya, Chandran), Neo-Capitalism (Menon), Neo-Liberalism (Ramakrishnan). Instead Sada called globalization as the existence of the Euro-American capitalism in the Third World.
In very simple to say that globalization is seen when all the people in the world are wearing Levis and Reeboks, eat McDonalds, drink Coca-Cola. More essential, globalization appears in the form of Global Capitalism berimplementasi through the IMF, World Bank, and WTO; world institutions that recently got a very sharp criticism of Dennis Kucinich, candidate for President of the United States from the Democratic Party, as these institutions It reflects the global injustice.
The programs of these institutions has become a powerful tool of Western capitalism that shake, shed and destroyed not only the economy but the lives of poor countries in an unbalanced form of the game between lender giant with landless laborers. Helpless little people in poor countries, became increasingly worse and miserable.
So although there are positive effects of globalization such as the presence of communication and information networks that facilitate the life of humanity, from the point of interests of the poor, globalization is more negative impact. We see the negative aspects of inequality of trade between nations, the accumulation of wealth and power in the hands of the capitalist developed countries resulting in unimaginable squalor in poor countries, including Indonesia. According to Kucinich, poorer countries have been extorted by payment of the debt burden to a global institution. Exemplified, every year 2.5 billion U.S. dollars in funds flow from sub-Saharan African countries to international lenders, while 40 million citizens of their malnutrition.

Conflict Theory


Conflict theory is a theory that views that social change does not occur through a process of adjustment of the values that bring change, but due to the conflicts that produce compromises that are different from its original state.
This theory is based on the ownership of the means of production as the principal element of the separation of classes in society.
Conflict theory emerged as a reaction to the emergence of structural functional theory. Thinking of the most influential or the basis of the theory of conflict is the thinking of Karl Marx. In the 1950s and 1960s, the theory of conflict broke out. Conflict theory provides an alternative to structural functional theory.
At that time, Marx filed a fundamental conception of society and class struggle. Marx did not define the class at length but he showed that in society, in the 19th century in Europe where he lived, composed of the class of capital owners (bourgeoisie) and the poor working class as the proletariat. Both these classes are in a hierarchical social structure, the bourgeoisie against the proletariat exploitation in the production process. This exploitation will continue to run during pseudo-consciousness exists (false consiousness) within the proletariat, namely a sense of self surrender, accept the situation as it is maintained. Tensions relationship between the proletariat and the bourgeoisie encourage the formation of large social movements, namely the revolution. Tension occurs if the proletariat has been aware of the exploitation of the bourgeoisie against them. [3]
There are several basic assumptions of the theory of this conflict. The theory of conflict is the antithesis of structural functional theory, where theory is put forward functional structural order in society. The theory of conflict to see dissension and conflict in social systems. The theory of conflict to see that in the community would not forever be in order. The proof in any society must have experienced conflicts or tensions. Then the theory of conflict also saw the domination, coercion, and power in society. Conflict theory also talks about the different authorities. Different authorities resulted superordinasi and subordination. The difference between superordinasi and subordination can lead to conflict because of differences of interests.
Conflict theory also says that conflict is necessary for the creation of social change. When the functional structural say that social change in society that always happens at the point of equilibrium, conflict theory view of social change due to conflicts of interest. But at a certain point, people are able to reach a mutual agreement. In the conflict, there's always negotiations conducted thus create a consensus.

A. Levels of conflict
In order to respond to conflict secrara right, we need to understand the level (levels) of conflict. Individual level there is conflict and there is also conflict institutional level. Both will be described in greater detail following.

1. Conflict Individual Level

In this category, there are two categories of conflict, namely: (1) conflict within the individual in question, and (2) conflicts between individuals. Conflicts in a person occurs when he has two or more interests that are conflicting. When those interests are equally attractive or equally unattractive, but he must make a choice, then there was a conflict within the individual concerned. Conflict between individuals, occurs when two individuals have the same interests against one thing, and they both will not budge. It could also, conflicts occur when they have different views or opinions, and each considers the most correct pendapatnnyalah. Contradictions of this kind lead to conflict between individuals.

2. Conflict Level Institutions
Two or more institutions, could be involved in a conflict. At the institutional level, there are two levels of conflict: (1) conflict within the institution and (2) conflicts between agencies.
Conflict occurs in the atmosphere is almost the same institution with a conflict between individuals as mentioned above, but is more complex. The difference is the number of individuals involved in the conflict. The members in an institution because they have conflicting interests similar to the one and the same thing will not budge. They have different views or opinions, and each considers the most correct pendapatnyalah.
In his position as a member of a group, people will tend to sort themselves meraka into two categories: 'we' (ingroup) and 'them' (outgroup). Ingroup are those who become members of the institution, and the outgroup are those that are outside the ingroup. Inter-institutional conflict arises when there is disagreement between the ingroup and outgroup.
If we observe the dynamics of an institution, we could find the existence of three types of conflict.

B. The theories about the causes of conflict

Public Relations Theory
Considers that the conflict caused by the polarization that continues to occur, distrust and hostility between different groups within a society. The main objective of this theory are:
• Improving communication and understanding between the groups in conflict.
• Ensuring the community for more tolerance and mutual acceptance of diversity that can exist in it.

Negotiation Theory Principles
Considers that the conflict caused by the positions that are not aligned and differences of opinion about the conflict by the parties in conflict. The main objective of this theory are:
• Assisting the parties in conflict to separate personal feelings with various problems and issues, and enabling them to conduct negotiations based on their interests rather than specific positions that have been fixed.
• Smooth the process of reaching an agreement beneficial to both parties or all parties.

Human Needs Theory

Assume that the conflict is rooted in basic human needs caused by - physical, mental, and social - are not fulfilled or blocked. Security, identity, recognition, participation, and autonomy is often a core subject. The main objective of this theory are:
• Assisting the parties in conflict to identify and work with their needs unmet, and generate options to meet those needs.
• In order for the parties in conflict to reach an agreement to meet the basic needs of all parties.

Identity Theory
Assume that the conflict caused by the threatened identity, often rooted in the loss of something or suffering in the past that are not resolved. The main objective of this theory are:
• Through workshops and dialogues between the parties in conflict they are expected to identify the threats and fear they felt each and to build empathy and reconciliation between them.
• Reaching agreement that recognizes the need for fundamental identity of all parties.


Theory of Intercultural Misunderstanding

Assume that the conflict caused by lack of match in the ways of communication between different cultures. The main objective of this theory are:
• Increase knowledge of the parties in conflict about the culture of others.
• Reduce the negative stereotypes they have of the other party.
• Improve the effectiveness of intercultural communication.

Theory of Conflict Transformation
Assume that the conflict caused by the problems of inequality and injustice that arise as social problems, cultural and economic. The main objective of this theory are:
• Changing the structures and frameworks that lead to inequality and injustice, including economic disparities.
• Improve relationships and long-term attitude among the parties in conflict.
• Develop a variety of processes and systems to promote empowerment, justice, peace, forgiveness, reconciliation and recognition.

History of the World Bank:

World Bank are lending institutions that fund critical infrastructure needs, globally. Headquartered in Washington DC, this fiscal institutions is skewed heavily by the government in the world for timely release of funds to support the development of major utilities and services. The focus of the current green 'World Bank has taken the initiative in 1944 to a new level ...
 
History of the World Bank:
The World Bank is the result of the Bretton Woods Conference, held in 1944. It was launched with the International Monetary Fund, in the presence of a number of delegations of the world are important, and important policy makers from the United States and Britania.Awalnya, until in 1968 the World Bank mainly lends money, the following fiscal conservatism. The loan application very carefully screened.
The action plan is followed at first was to establish the World Bank as an institution designed to provide investment and loans. Under the leadership of John McCloy, France was the first country to receive World Bank assistance, the refusal of Chile and Poland. $ 250,000,000 dollar loan made in strict terms of payment.
In time, the emphasis shifted to conformity and a number of non-European countries continued assistance, the assumptions and calculations that the loan has the capacity to repay the loan in good time. The loan transferred to less developed countries and developing countries to fund the development of transportation systems and power plants.
Then, the focus shifted to poverty alleviation and allow the state to help people benefit from access to basic needs. Total loans and total loans increased funds available to also to meet the needs of infrastructure and social services. Robert McNamara, World Bank President in 1968 is credited with the implementation of the new technocratic management of funds.
McNamara makes the World Bank funds available for building utilities and schools, hospitals, agricultural reform and to improve levels of literacy. Investigations prior to sanction loans not only allow for continued loan quickly, but also increase the volume of credit. The bond market is used to raise capital. Through the 1980s, the World Bank's focus is on structural adjustment and economic downsizing some developing countries.
Currently, the World Bank integrated its lending practices to meet environmental requirements and infrastructure, all over the world. The focus of the new green''has made a capital for a number of developing and least developed countries to increase exports, achieve economic peace and at the same time ensure improved citizens utilities and services.
Objectives:
The World Bank is a financial institution that is designed to meet the needs of the international community. Provide technical assistance in the fiscal world fluctuate, to enable developing countries to address critical infrastructure needs. World Bank funds development program targets to reduce poverty.
Role:
The World Bank consists of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development or IBRD and the International Development Association or IDA. It is also responsible for the work the International Finance Corporation, the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency and International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes. The World Bank's main role is unbiased distribution of funds for the economic upliftment of the international community. It bears the responsibility to ensure assistance to resolve disputes and facilitate the reconstruction of the fiscal investment and infrastructure, all over the world.
World Bank Objectives:
World Bank head office in Washington DC The purpose of this international organization include:• Achieving the Millennium Development Goals.• Increased lending to middle-income countries.• Develop and advanced with easy loan interest rates.• Generate a low or no interest loans to countries lagging.• Improving the periodic give-investment by member countries.


World Bank definition:
World Bank definition set: A bank with a mission to help developing countries and left in the world to:• Reduce poverty.• Develop an investment-environment.• Increase job opportunities.• Work towards sustained economic growth.• Promote socio-economic growth through investment.• Strengthen government and education.• Empower the development of legal and judicial system, business opportunities and protection of individual rights.• The benefits of micro credit as well as businesses large companies.• Combating corruption.• Promote research and training opportunities.


Operational issues:The World Bank manages the funds or capital investments made by the various operations by investing in world markets after investment keuangan.Subyek made to withstand the fluctuations and lending activities. The majority of World Bank funds obtained from forty donor countries. This nation is filled loaned funds every three years. The replenishments depend on timely loan repayment. In the event of disruption in this arena, automatic future Bank's lending capacity is affected.
IMF and World Bank:The World Bank and IMF or the International Monetary Fund is a good support system of inter-governmental organization dedicated to improving the world financial order. Both were directed by the governments of member countries. Second, the IMF and World Bank have their headquarters in Washington, DC The difference lies in the fact that the World Bank is a development institution, while the IMF's function as a cooperative institution. While the former looks to the loan terms by the countries under-developed and developing, the latter handles payments, payments and receipts.
Facts About the World Bank:World Bank offers two types of loans: investment and development policies. While the investment credit which will be forwarded to support economic and social development, policy development loans are offered as a quick finance to support institutional reforms to reduce third world debt.
Provide analytical services for the improvement of economic and social infrastructure. It also encourages innovation and collaboration among local stakeholders to produce:• Debt in the case of countries that are very poor.• Development of sanitation and water supply.• Support immunization programs during the epidemic.• Create 'green' initiatives.Current World Bank President Robert B. Zoellick. He is assisted by three Senior Vice President, 24 Vice-President and Executive Vice President 2.
What the World Bank?:World Bank provides financial and technical assistance to developing country markets. This usually happens when their economies are in danger of default through overspending, borrowing a broad, often causing hyperinflation and a devaluation of its currency. The World Bank is not really a bank in the sense sehat.Sebaliknya, is comprised of two development institutions owned by 186 member countries the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) and International Development Association (IDA).What is purpose of the World Bank?:World Bank provides low-interest loans, interest-free loans and grants to developing countries. In return, the state must adhere to a strict budget reform. Should agree to reduce expenditure and support its currency. World Bank loan is usually to invest in education, health, and infrastruktur.Pinjaman also be used to modernize a country's financial sector, agriculture and natural resource management.World Bank History:The World Bank was created in 1944 to provide loans to mainly European countries that have been destroyed in the war to help them rebuild. It evolved from the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD). World Bank headquarters in Washington, DC, and especially staff with the engineer.Since then, it has been broadened to closely related group of five development institutions whose goal is to reduce poverty around the world. It operates closely with its affiliate, the International Development Association, and other members of the World Bank Group, International Finance Corporation (IFC), Multilateral Guarantee Agency (MIGA), and International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID).

Constructivist Approach To Analysis Of Foreign Affairs


The emergence of constructivism in foreign policy analysis

At the beginning of the relationship of international studies in1920 when separated from the discipline of political science, IR scholars engaged in trying to describe and explain the dramatic events such as international war and peace (Rskin, 1990 at Kubalkova, 2001). This event reflects the mechanism of a complex process and multiple layers, which consist of pursuing state goals in interacting with one another, and means the countries used to achieve their goals.
In the 1950s, however, the split occurred in the discipline of International Relations. discipline was divided into two subfields with different theoretical interests: analysis of foreign policy on the one hand, and theories of International Relations at the lain.meskipun still in touch with the focus on the discipline of International Relations, Foreign Policy Analysis (AKLN) seek answers the question of why countries do certain foreign policy, through exploring what happens in the country. Meanwhile, the Theory of International Relations, focusing attention on international relations as a system, and then learn about the influence on the behavior of the system state. The start of the whole, the other from all the parts (kubalkova, 2001: 15). To this day, according to Margot Light (1994: 93), this separation continues to exist, Analysis of Foreign Policy and International Relations Theory is an intellectual separated, and to a certain extent their position against one another.
The division came from the disruption of social science scientific revolution in 1950, with its impact on the study of international relations emerged as the debate traditionalism versus behaviorism / scientism (Kubalkova, 2001: 17 -8). unlike a lot of philosophical traditionalism, scientism represents a major commitment to careful empirical investigation, data collection, model formulation either statistics or mathematics in the natural procedures and verification models. Collaboration between International Relations theory and scientism generate a theoretical project stresses on the system - an explanation stating the level of behavior that can be read through the neo-realism, neo-liberalism, neo-Marxism in the expanse of the examination of a more micro-level explanations such as individual and group influences (hudson. 2002: 2)
During the development of scientific Foreign Policy Analysis in the year 1960-80 has produced many scholars systematically (but not systemic) work analysis framework, known as the Comparative Study of Foreign Policy (SPKLN). Most of them believe Comparative Study of Foreign Affairs has strengthened the power of generalization of research on foreign policy. on the other hand, there are opinions that the Comparative Study of Foreign Affairs of the relative neglect of the wealth of descriptive studies particular attention to the government.
As artificial contradiction between Foreign Policy Analysis and International Relations Theory leads to the paradox for Foreign Policy Analysis itself. On the one hand, it is an asset, and is a weakness on the other hand it is the power due to Foreign Policy Analysis is not affected by the rise and fall of a particular paradigm in the discipline of International Relations. moreover, no need for Foreign Policy Analysis scholars to engage with the paradigm of a certain flow to their research. They are flexible to work in an interdisciplinary project with other areas outside the discipline of International IHubungan. The disadvantage, however, in the sense that although the theory of international relations clearly its potential has never admitted the status of Foreign Policy Analysis in International Relations, and therefore they never considered seriously Policy Analysis in International Relations such as thematic issues that should be the case (houghton. 2007: 27).
What hougthton see as a weakness only be imagined from the fact. Some efforts have been encouraging signals that the Foreign Policy Analysis continues to attract international relations theory. Survey into some theoretical topics of International Relations textbooks to inform students about how to attract Foreign Policy Analysis is to International Relations theorists. Viotti Paul and Mark Kauppi (1999:199-225) include discussion of foreign policy into their text book chapters liberalism. Viotti and Kauppi memghubungkan issues of foreign policy with dependency theory. At other times, K. J. Holsti (1995), Charles Kegley Jr. and Eugene Wittkopt (2004: 61-91) combines Foreign Policy Analysis with structural realism or neo-realism. These companies demonstrate the ways that International Relations theorists try to educate connect Analysis of Foreign Policy to the ongoing debate in International Relations Theory.
The arrival of ideational factors in international relations theory has opened the way for constructivists to engage closely with the Foreign Policy analysis. Focus on ideational factors such as inter-subjectivity and the construction of meaning as opposed to factors that are considered material proved to be a post-cold war trend for Foreign Policy Analysis Affairs, although in the beginning he did not have the emphasis on social factors than the current study constructivist Foreign Policy Analysis (katzentein, 1996; Hopf, 2002). In strengthening the position of constructivism in Foreign Policy Analysis, Wendt (1999:3) came out with the idea that constructivist assumptions underlying the phenomenological tradition of the Foreign Policy Analysis.

Decision-making approach and crashed in the theory subfield of foreign policy analysis, in the field of international relations is greater. Foreign policy analysis (known as FPA) is distinguished from other theoretical approaches in international relations with the insistence that the focal point of the explanation must be a foreign policy decision-makers themselves and not structural or systemic phenomenon is greater. Explanation of variables from all levels of analysis, from the most micro to the most macro, are of interest to analysts to the extent that they affect the decision making process. Thus, from all subfields of international relations, integrative theoretical enterprise FPA is the most radical. Investigations into the role that personality variables, perceptions and constructions of meaning, group dynamics, organizational process, bureaucratic politics, domestic politics, culture, and systems play in decision-making structure of foreign policy is the core research agenda of the FPA. But as Richard Snyder, co-founder of FPA, and his colleagues Henry Bruck and Burton Sapin recorded in 1954, this is only important because it affects only the right agent in the international human-affairs decision-makers:
In a sense, then, in the age-old philosophy of social science debate about whether the agent or structure is a major determinant of behavior in the social world, FPA down right next to the agent. FPA is an agent-centered theory of international relations. foreign policy analysts argue that without an account of human agency in international relations theory, one can not develop a satisfactory account of the changes from time to time in international affairs. Furthermore, given the great destructive power inherent in international relations, the explanation which removes the examination of the role and effectiveness of human agency in the use and contains less power than they should.
Here, then, is again the difference between the approach of FPA and other acceptable approaches to understanding international relations. Not only FPA gives an account of the agent, but gives specific, not account, the public agency. In approaches such as game theory and rational choice explanations of foreign policy, the actor is conceptualized as a rational, utility maximizing decision maker generic. Conversely, the theory of FPA dismantle the generic "black-boxed" actor and found that the idiosyncrasies of the actors do influence the foreign policy choices. To use a term coined by Alexander George, FPA is more interested in the actor-specific "theories" of the actor-general "theory".
In sum, then, FPA generate integrative, agent-oriented, and actor-specific theory of radicals. In three ways, it remains a unique and easily distinguished subfield of international relations.
A Word About Explanandum What foreign policy analysts trying to explain? To use a common phrase, what the dependent variable in FPA?
Despite efforts to formulate "foreign policy" in terms of the operationalization of variables is consistent, it must be admitted that what had been shown to vary across the research programs in the FPA. Some programs focus on foreign policy as the output of decision making; others focus on the process of decision making in foreign policy. For example, the use of event data (discussed below) as the dependent variable is an example of one conceptualization of foreign policy as an output. In this tradition, foreign policy "events" obtained from the media can be encoded to some set of variables, such as the level of commitment implied by the events on the part of the act. Coding standards and then allow for direct comparison of output from various nation-state actors, as well as enabling a longitudinal analysis of the behavior of a nation's foreign policy.
It is also possible to take a more process-oriented approach to what is meant by foreign policy. For example, one can use the policy positions of various parties as the dependent variable, tracing how a particular position to be dominant in decision-making group from time to time. One of the cats could walk again but the other steps and examine how such policy stance crystallized in the first place of the basic cognitive processes such as perception, problem representation, and construction of meaning back again. Steps will be asked how come the group decision-making in the first place, how the structure and process groups that are created and changed from time to time within a society. Role of the conception of the nation-state, and about the various agencies and groups within the nation-state, could also be a focus of investigation.
Both approaches to the explanandum in the FPA has beneficial use, and insight from every kind of research to inform the other. It is true that the explanandum choice affects the choice of methodology: statistical testing of aggregate data may be useful in studies of events, while the process of tracking and interpretivist analysis might be more helpful with the process-oriented conceptualization of foreign policy.